chapter 11-15

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Chapter 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture Advanced Placement United States History Review for Test Chapter 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture 1. The Deist faith embraced all of the following except the concept of original sin. 2. Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of a Supreme Being who created the universe. 3. By 1850, organized religion in America had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor. 4. All the following are true of the Second Great Awakening …

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Chapter 15
The Ferment of Reform and Culture
Advanced Placement United States History
Review for Test Chapter 15
The Ferment of Reform and Culture
1. The Deist faith embraced all of the following except the concept of original sin.
2. Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of a Supreme Being who created the universe.
3. By 1850, organized religion in America had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor.
4. All the following are true of the Second Great Awakening except that it was not as large as the First Great Awakening.
5. Unitarians endorsed the concept of salvation through good works.
6. An early-nineteenth-century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the Unitarians.
7. Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in a strong religious influence in many areas of American life.
8. As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated, opposition to slavery, a perfect Christian kingdom on earth, opposition to alcohol and public prayer by women.
9. The greatest of the revival preachers of the Second Great Awakening was Charles G. Finney.
10. The Second Great Awakening tended to promote religious diversity.
11. The Mormon religion originated in the Burned-Over District of New York.
12. The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the Methodists and Baptists.
13. The Second Great Awakening tended to widen the lines between classes and regions.
14. The original prophet of the Mormon religion was Joseph Smith.
15. William Miller is least related to Brigham Young, The Book of Mormom, Salt Lake City, and polygamy.
16. One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their emphasis on cooperative or group effort.
17. Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening lacked much intellectual vitality.
18. Tax-supported public education was deemed essential for social stability and democracy.
19. In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were chiefly available to educate the children of the poor.
20. Noah Webster's dictionary helped to standardize the American language.
21. One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the belief that too much learning would injure women's brains and ruin their health.
22. Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the Second Great Awakening because evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home.
23. Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were moral sensibility and artistic refinement.
24. New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of prison and asylum reform.
25. The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many.
26. Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles.
27. One sign that women in America were treated better than women in Europe was that rape was more severely punished in the U.S.
28. Neal Dow sponsored the Maine Law of 1851, which called for a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor.
29. By the 1850s, the crusade for women's rights was eclipsed by abolitionism.
30. According to John Humphrey Noyes, the key to happiness is the suppression of selfishness.
31. The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following except strictly monogamous marriages.
32. The key to Oneida's financial success was the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware.
33. The Oneida colony declined due to widespread criticism of its sexual practices.
34. The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for its still primitive standards.
35. Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held cooperative social and economic practices as one of their founding ideals.
36. Of the following, the most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at Oneida, New York.
37. When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was more interested in practical matters.
38. Match each individual below with the correct description.
• Louis Agassiz- Harvard biologist
• Gilbert Stuart- portrait artist
• John J. Audubon- author of Birdsof America

39. America's artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century were least notable in architecture.
40. The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting landscapes.
41. A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812.
42. Match each writer below with his work.
• Washington Irving ,The Sketch Bookwith "Rip Van Winkle"
• James Fenimore Cooper-Leatherstocking Tales
• Ralph Waldo Emerson- "The American Scholar"

43. Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through an inner light.
44. All of the following influenced transcendental thought; German philosophers, Oriental religions, individualism, and love of nature.
45. "Civil Disobedience," an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was written by the transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.
46. The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was Walt Whitman.
47. The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was William Gilmore Simms.
48. One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was
Edgar Allan Poe.
49. Match each writer below with his work.
• Henry Wadsworth Longfellow-"Hiawatha"
• Nathaniel Hawthorne- The Scarlet Letter
• Herman Melville- Moby Dick

50. Virtually all the distinguished historians of early-nineteenth-century America came from New England.

Chapter 14
Forging the National Economy
Advanced Placement United States History
Review for Test Chapter 14
Forging the National Economy

1. All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America: push west in search of cheap land, a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities, newly invented machinery, and better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.
2. Pioneering Americans marooned by geography became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes.
3. In early-nineteenth-century America, the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate.
4. The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities.
5. "Ecological imperialism" can best be described as the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty.
6. George Catlin advocated the preservation of nature as a national policy.
7. The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the 1840s and 1850s.
8. Ireland's great export in the 1840s was people.
9. The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British.
10. When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they were too poor to move west and buy land.
11. When the "famine Irish" came to America, they mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast.
12. Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants were Roman Catholic.
13. German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to preserve their own language and culture.
14. German immigrants to the United States came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government.
15. When German immigrants came to the United States, they prospered with astonishing ease.
16. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner.
17. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called nativism.
18. Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would "establish" the Catholic Church at the expense of Protestantism.
19. Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 helped to fuel economic expansion.
20. The "Father of the Factory System" in the United States was Samuel Slater.
21. Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the cotton gin.
22. Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was
sold to England.
23. The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed with textile mills.
24. As a result of the development of the cotton gin, slavery revived and expanded.
25. The underlying basis for modern mass production was the use of interchangeable parts.
26. The early factory system distributed its benefits mostly to the owners.
27. Match each individual below with the correct invention.
• Samuel Morse -telegraph
• Cyrus McCormick - reaper
• Elias Howe- sewing machine
• Robert Fulton- steamboat
28. The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized bysubstantial employment of women and children in factories.
29. One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was the enfranchisement of the laboring man.
30. In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that
labor unions were not illegal conspiracies.
31. The "cult of domesticity" glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers.
32. Early-nineteenth-century American families were getting smaller.
33. One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to raise independent individuals.
34. The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage specialized, cash-crop agriculture.
35. With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness.
36. In the 1790's a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the Lancaster Turnpike.
37. Western road building faced all of the following problems except competition from canals.
38. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on western and southern rivers.
39. The "canal era" of American history began with the construction of the Erie Canal in New York.
40. Construction of the Erie Canal forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations.
41. Most early railroads in the United States were built in the North.
42. Compared with canals, railroads could be built almost anywhere.
43. In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South grew cotton for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed eastern factory workers; and the East made machines and textiles for the other two regions.
44. As a result of the transportation revolution, each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity.
45. In general, steamboats tended to bind the West and South together, while canals and railroads connected West to East.
46. All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy:how tightly should patents pretect inventions? should the government regulate monopolies? can a democratic government still support slavery? who should own these new technologies?
47. As the new continental market economy grew, the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world.
48. A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was
a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living.
49. America's early-nineteenth-century population was notable for its restlessness.
50. Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included the rapid growth rate of the European population.
51. The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was slowed by
the scarcity of labor.
52. The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because it had abundant water power.
53. The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was stimulated by theWar of 1812.
54. By 1850, America's factory system was producing textiles.
55. The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was promoted by the wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability.
56. The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encouraged lowering of freight rates.
57. Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common speedy service.
58. Advances in manufacturing and transportation brought more prosperity and opportunity to most Americans.

Chapter 13
The Rise of Mass Democracy
Advanced Placement United States History
Review for Test Chapter 13
The Rise of Mass Democracy

1. In the 1820s and 1830s one issue that greatly raised the political stakes wasslavery.
2. The new two party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s became an important part of the nation's checks and balances.
3. In the 1820s and 1830s the public's attitude regarding political parties accepted the sometimes wild contentiousness of political life.
4. The presidential election of 1824 was the first one to see the election of a minority president.
5. By the 1840s voter participation in the presidential election reached nearly 80 percent.
6. Match each individual below with the correct statement.
• Andrew Jackson -received more popular votes than any other candidate in 1824.
• Henry Clay -was eliminated as a candidate when the election of 1824 was thrown into the House of
Representatives.
• John C. Calhoun -was vice president on the ticket of two presidential candidates in 1824.
7. The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College.
8. John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed Henry Clay to become secretary of state.
9. As president, John Quincy Adams was one of the least successful presidents in American history.
10. John Quincy Adams could be described as possessing almost none of the arts of the politician.
11. John Quincy Adams's weaknesses as president included all of the following excepthis firing good office holders to appoint his own people.
12. Andrew Jackson's political philosophy was based on his suspicion of the federal government.
13. Andrew Jackson's inauguration as president symbolized the newly won ascendancy of the masses.
14. The purpose behind the spoils system was to reward political supporters with public office.
15. The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs.
16. The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson.
17. The section of the United States most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was the South.
18. Southerners feared the Tariff of 1828 because this same power could be used to suppress slavery.
19. John C. Calhoun's "South Carolina Exposition" was an argument for states' rights.
20. The "nullification crisis" of 1832-1833 erupted over tariff policy.
21. The strong regional support for the Tariff of 1833 came from the South.
.
22. The Force Bill of 1833 provided that the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties.
23. The person most responsible for defusing the tariff controversy that began in 1828 wasHenry Clay.
24. The nullification crisis of 1833 resulted in a clear-cut victory for neither Andrew Jackson nor the nullifiers.
25. In response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jacksondispatched military forces to South Carolina.
26. The nullification crisis started by South Carolina over the Tariff of 1828 ended when Congress passed the compromise Tariff of 1833.
27. Andrew Jackson's administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because whites wanted the Indians' lands.
28. In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following except
argue that Indians could not be assimilated into the larger society.
29. In an effort to assimilate themselves into white society, the Cherokees did all of the following except refuse to own slaves.
30. The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was forced removal.
31. Andrew Jackson and his supporters disliked the Bank of the United States for all of the following reasons except it put public service first, not profits.
32. Andrew Jackson made all of the following charges against the Bank of the United Statesexcept that it refused to lend money to politicians.
33. One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was its promotion of economic expansion by making credit abundant.
34. While in existence, the second Bank of the United States was the depository of the funds of the national government.
35. Andrew Jackson's veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States was a major expansion of presidential power.
36. Andrew Jackson based his veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States on the fact that he found the bill harmful to the nation.
37. The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to American suspicions of secret societies.
38. Innovations in the election of 1832 included adoption of written party platforms.
39. One of the main reasons Andrew Jackson decided to weaken the Bank of the United States after the 1832 election was his fear that Nicholas Biddle might try to manipulate the bank to force its recharter.
40. Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following except opponents of public education.
41. The "cement" that held the Whig party together in its formative days was hatred of Andrew Jackson.
42. The Whigs hoped to win the 1836 election by forcing the election into the House of Representatives.
43. The Panic of 1837 was caused by all of the following except taking the country off the gold standard.
44. The Whigs offered all of the following proposals for the remedies of the economic ills facing America in 1837 except proposal of the "Divorce Bill."
45. Americans moved into Texas after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin.
46. The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues except allegiance to Spain.
47. Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of San Jacinto.
48. Texas gained its independence with help from Americans.
49. Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory.
50. One reason for the Anglo-Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that the Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian.
51. Presidents Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and to annex the new Texas Republic because antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery.
52. Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from the South and Southwest.
53. The "Tippecanoe" in the Whigs' 1840 campaign slogan was William Harrison.
54. William Henry Harrison, the Whig party's presidential candidate in 1840, was made to look like a poor western farmer.
55. Both the Democratic party and the Whig party were mass-based political parties.
56. The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to be socially and geographically diverse.
57. Life on the frontier was downright grim for most pioneer families.

Chapter 12
The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism
Advanced Placement United States History
Review for Test Chapter 12
The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism

1. All of the following were true of the American regular army on the eve of the War of 1812:
a. They were ill-trained and ill-disciplined.
b. They were widely scattered.
c. Most of the generals were leftovers from the Revolutionary War and lacked vigor and vision.
d. There was no burning national anger to unite them.
2. When the United States entered the War of 1812, it was militarily unprepared.
3. Canada became an important battleground in the War of 1812 because British forces were weakest there.
4. The performance of the United States' Navy in the War of 1812 could be best described as much better than that of the army.
5. America's campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was poorly conceived because it split-up the military.
6. Perhaps the key battle of the War of 1812, because it protected the United States from full-scale invasion and possible dissolution, was the Battle of Plattsburgh.
7. British plans for their 1814 campaign did not include action in Florida.
8. The British attack on Fort McHenry inspired the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner."
9. The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of New Orleans.
10. The Battle of New Orleans saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson&#

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