Ch 17 & 18 APES

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The total amount of water on the Earth ____________ from year to year and the hydrologic cycle ________________.

stays about the same; moves it from one place to another place

Transpiration is the way plants

return large amounts of water to the atmosphere.

Evaporation is

liquid water turning to vapor well below boiling temperature.

Natural evaporation processes are mainly driven by

solar energy.

The process of _____________ explains why your ice cubes shrink when they have been left in the freezer for a long time.

sublimation.

The amount of water vapor that air can hold _________. Warm air is able to hold _____ humidity when compared to _____ air.

varies greatly; more; cold

Saturation point is the maximum amount of water vapor that

air at a certain temperature can hold.

Relative humidity is a measure of water vapor in air compared to the

maximum vapor air can hold at that temperature.

Condensation is the process of water molecules

aggregating when the saturation point is exceeded.

The dew point is

the temperature at which a certain concentration of water vapor will begin to condense.

Condensation nuclei such as smoke or dust can make water vapor

condense more easily.

The rainiest or snowiest zone on the mountain in the diagram above would be in the area marked

from A to B.

The rainshadow on the mountain in the diagram above would be in the area marked

from C to D.

Air moving in the direction indicated in the diagram above will become warmer as it moves from

B to D.

Air moving in the direction indicated in the diagram above will become dryer as it moves from

B to D.

Residence time of water in oceans is a measure of the

average amount of time a water molecule spends in the ocean.

The hydrologic compartment that contains the greatest amount of fresh water is

ice and snow.

Water enters groundwater by

infiltration.

The zone of saturation is the portion of groundwater where

all soil or rock pore spaces are filled with water.

The place where aquifers are most likely to be contaminated is at

recharge zones.

The amount of water in aquifers in the United States is

over thirty times greater than all surface water in the United States.

22. The atmosphere has the greatest ________ of the earth's hydrologic compartments.

turnover rate and smallest water volume

A country's renewable water supplies are generally made up of

surface runoff and infiltration into accessible aquifers.

Which of the following factors is the most important factor in determining whether a country is "water rich" or "water poor"?

Renewable water supplies.

The United States has a drought cycle that brings dry periods about every ____ years.

30

Withdrawal is the total amount of water

taken from rivers, lakes or aquifers.

Technically speaking, when water is consumed it

is no longer available for other purposes.

Human water withdrawals have been increasing at about ___________ rate as worldwide population growth.

twice the

In general, water use in poor countries is dominated by

agricultural use.

On the graph of domestic water use per person above, each letter represents a country. Which of the following is most likely?

A is the United States; B is China.

The Ogallala Aquifer supplies water to ___________ and once held more water than the surface water __________.

the central Plains states, in the world

Withdrawal of groundwater often causes subsidence, a situation where

porous rocks settle and ground level falls.

In some regions groundwater withdrawals can contribute to sinkholes, in which

empty underground caverns suddenly collapse.

Subsidence and sinkholes

are probably a permanent loss of an aquifer.

A method of increasing water supplies that has been successful, if expensive, is

desalinization by reverse osmosis.

Consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt include

A. increase in the need for buying fertilizer.
B. increase in the occurrence of schistosomiasis.
C. decline in the Mediterranean fisheries.
D. "increase in the occurrence of schistosomiasis" and "decline in the Mediterranean fisheries" are consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.
E. All of these are consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.

All of these are consequences of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt.

The activity that uses the greatest share of US household water is

flushing the toilet.

Principal problems that have resulted from the construction of large dams include the relocation of people.

True

Many experts think that in the future, water conflicts will be a major cause of international conflict. Currently, however, there are no international conflicts over water.

False

Human activity such as deforestation can affect rainfall.

True

Charging a higher proportion of real costs rather than subsidies has led to water conservation.

False

Factories, sewage treatment plants, and oil wells are __________ sources of water pollution.

point

_________ sources of water pollution are relatively easy to monitor and regulate while _____________ sources of water pollution are difficult to monitor and cleanup.

Point; nonpoint

The discharge from a nonpoint source of pollution is

highly seasonal in quantity.

____________ is to point source of water pollution as _____________ is to nonpoint source of water pollution.

Power plant effluent; golf course runoff

Atmospheric deposition of contaminants is an excellent example of

nonpoint pollution.

The water pollutant that most commonly threatens human health is

pathogenic organisms.

Coliform bacteria populations are routinely monitored in drinking water supplies, swimming pools, and at beaches because these bacteria

indicate the presence of feces in water.

On the graph of clean drinking water per person, each letter represents a country. Which of the following is most likely?

A is the United States; B is India.

High oxygen content in water is an indication that

water is clean enough to support game fish.

An oxygen sag occurs most often

immediately downstream of a pollution source.

In the diagram above, the horizontal (X) axis should be labeled

Distance from outfall pipe.

In the diagram above, which of the following units would probably be used to label the numbers on the horizontal (X) axis?

Kilometers

The most active decomposition occurs in the area marked _____ on the horizontal axis of the diagram.

0 to 1

In the diagram above, which of the following organisms would probably be found in the area marked 3 and higher?

mayfly and stonefly larvae

In the diagram above, which of the following organisms would probably be found in the area between 1 and 2?

mosquito larvae

When natural waters are overloaded with plant nutrients, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, they become

eutrophic.

Cultural eutrophication results from

human activity.

Algae blooms are a common problem in the Mediterranean Sea because of

heavy tourism and untreated sewage.

Toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury

can be toxic in extremely small quantities.

Which of the following are inorganic toxic substances sometimes found in water supplies?

salts and lead

Itai-Itai developed in Japanese people living near the Jintsu River. This disease was traced to

cadmium poisoning.

Rivers in California's dry agricultural valleys are often toxic because they

have high concentrations of metals and salts.

Acid precipitation is especially disruptive when it occurs in areas with______________ because of the lack of _____________.

granite bedrock; buffering capacity

Dioxins, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls are all types of

toxic organic compounds.

The range of tolerance for temperature in an aquatic organism is likely to be _____ the tolerance range of a terrestrial organism.

less than

In order to avoid producing thermal plumes, power plants often

warm entire rivers to ease temperature gradients.

The main reason that surface water pollution has largely decreased in the United States since 1950 is

the Clean Water Act.

In 1998, a change in the approach to water quality was initiated by _________ with an emphasis on _________.

the EPA; watershed management

Feedlots are a major cause of _________ in water.

A. viruses
B. coliform bacteria
C. nitrates
D. phosphates
E. All of these choices are correct.

All of these choices are correct.

______________ is an example of a natural process that is accelerated by human activities.

A. Eutrophication
B. The weathering and release of toxic inorganic minerals from rocks
C. The mobilization and concentration of soluble salts from groundwater
D. Sediment loading of rivers
E. All of these are examples of natural processes that are accelerated by human activities.

All of these are examples of natural processes that are accelerated by human activities.

Aquifers are especially susceptible to contamination

A. around wells.
B. near their recharge zones.
C. when they are shallow.
D. around injection wells.
E. All of these choices are correct.

All of these choices are correct.

The following statements explain why contamination of aquifers is dangerous. Which of the statements is false?

A. The contaminants are concentrated by the different densities of water in the aquifers.
B. Pollutants are extremely stable once they contaminate an aquifer.
C. Minuscule amounts of a pollutant can contaminate an entire aquifer.
D. Aquifers can take an extremely long time to turn over their water content.
E. All of these statements are true.

The contaminants are concentrated by the different densities of water in the aquifers.

Municipal sewage can be an excellent source of _____________ that are otherwise expensive to mine.

useful metals

The potential problem with natural decay for human waste is that

it only works where population density is low.

__________ should never be allowed down a drain when a septic tank and drain field system is being used for sewage disposal.

Chlorine and antimicrobial cleansers

Primary sewage treatment involves

removing solids from water.

Tertiary treatment of sewage produces water that is usable for

drinking.

Tertiary sewage treatment is designed to remove

nitrates and phosphates.

The advantage of effluent sewerage is that

since solids are removed, pipes and pumps to the central treatment plant can be small and cheap.

The city of Arcata, California, is notable because it designed a _________ to treat its sewage.

natural marsh

Using Bentonite slurries to stabilize liquids in porous substances is an example of

a containment method of remediation.

Using duckweed in a lagoon as low-tech sewage treatment plants is an example of

bioremediation.

Best practical technology (BPT) is legally required for all

point source polluters.

Best available economically achievable technology (BAT) standards are standards set for

toxic substances.

Wetland protection is one of the most controversial provisions of the ___________ because opponents believe that the legislation is _____________

Clean Water Act; an infringement on their use of private property

The cheapest and most effective way to reduce water pollution is to use technology to separate wastes for nonpoint sources.

False

Open sea bilge pumping and tank cleaning are legal ways to clean ships, once the ship is at least 300 miles off shore.

False

Sediments in rivers are especially harmful to Louisiana's coastal wetlands.

False

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