an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
Bluish color of the skin, nail beds, and/or lips due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood
An abnormal yellow skin tone usually signifies a liver disorder, in which yellow bile pigments accumulate in the blood and are deposited in the body tissues.
abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation, or embarrassment, fever, allergy, hypertension)
the collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise
a condition in which overactivity of the sebaceous glands causes the skin to become oily
any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue
malignant tumor of melanocytes that commonly begins in a darkly pigmented mole and can metastasize widely. Most dangerous.
Rule of 9's
refers to percentage of body parts that are burned upon initial examination. in multiples of 9%
full thickness burn
a burn in which all the layers of the skin are damaged. There are usually areas that are charred black or areas that are dry and white. Also called a third-degree burn.
burn that damages only the epidermis or the epidermis (first degree burn) and part of the dermis (second degree burn)
inflammation of the skin
Inherited condition in which melanocytes do not synthesize melanin owing to a lack of tyrosinase. An albino's skin is pink, the hair pale or white, and thee irises of the eyes unpigmented or poorly so.
Boils and carbuncles
Inflammation of hair follicles ans sebaceous glands in which and infection has spread to the underlying hypodermis; common on the dorsal neck. Carbuncles are composite boils. A common cause is bacterial infection.
Cold Sores (fever blisters)
Small fluid-filled blisters that itch and smart; usually occur around the lips and in the mucosa of the mouth; caused by the herpes simplex infection. The virus localized in a cutaneous nerve, where it remains dormant until activated by emotional upset, fever, or UV radiation
Itching, redness, and swelling, progressing to blister formation; caused by exposure of the skin to chemicals (e.g. poison ivy oleoresin) that provoke an allergic response in sensitive individuals
Localized breakdown and ulceration of skin due to interference with its blood supply. Usually occurs over a bony prominence such as the hip or heel, that is subjected to continuous pressure, also called a bedsore.
The branch of medicine that studies and treats disorders of the skin.
A skin rash characterized by itching, blistering, oozing, and scaling of the skin. A common allergic reaction in children, but also occurs (typically in a more severe form) in adults. Frequent causes include allergic reactions to certain food (fish, egg, and others) or to inhaled dust or pollen. Treated by methods used for other allergic disorders.
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB)
A group of hereditary disorders characterized by inadequate or faulty synthesis of keratin, collagen, and/or basement membrane "cement" that results in a lack of cohesion between layers of the skin and mucosa. A simple touch causes layers to separate and blister. For this reason, EB victims are called "touch-me-nots." In severe cases fatal blistering occurs in major vital organs. Because the blisters rupture easily, victims suffer frequent infections. Treatments are aimed and relieving the symptoms and preventing infection.
Pink, fluid-filled, raised lesions (common around the mouth and nose) that develop a yellow crust and eventually rupture. Caused by staphlococcus infection, it is contagious, and common in school-age children.
An inherited condition in which certain enzymes need to form the heme of hemoglobin of blood are lacking. Without these enzymes, metabolic intermediates of the heme pathway called porphyrins build up, spill into the circulation and eventually cause lesions throughout the body, especially when exposed to sunlight. The skin becomes lesioned and scarred; fingers, toes and nose are disfigured; hums degenerate and teeth become prominent. Believed to be the basis of folklore about vampires.
A chronic autoimmune condition characterized by raised, reddened epidermal patches covered with silvery scales that itch or burn, crack, and sometimes bleed or become infected. When severe, it may be disfiguring and debilitating. Trauma, infection, hormonal changes, or stress often trigger the autoimmune attacks. Cortisione-containing topicals (medication applied to skin surface) may control mild cases. For more severe cases, self-injected drugs called biologicals and/or phototheraphy with UV light in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs provide some relief.
A chronic skin eruption produced by dilated small blood vessels of the face, particularly the nose and cheeks. Papules and acne-like pustules may or may not occur. More common in women, but tends to be more severe when it occurs in men. Cause is unknown, but stress, some endocrine disorders, and anything that produces flushing (hot beverages, alcohol, sunlight, etc) can aggravate the condition.
The most prevalent skin pigmentation disorder, characterized by a loss of melanoncytes and uneven dispersal of melanin, so that unpigmented skin regions (light spots) are surround by normally pigmented areas. An autoimmune disorder.
An autoimmune disorder characterized by stiff, hardened skin due to abnormal amounts of collagen in the dermis that severely limit joint movements and facial expressions. A classic sign of the disorder is Raynaud disease in which the fingers and toes become white and painful because of poor blood flow to those areas. The fibrosis that occurs in systemic cases may affect a variety of organs including the lungs, eventually leading to suffocation, and the kidney, leading to renal hypertension because of blood vessel constriction and occlusion. Environmental factors including organic solvents, asbestos, and even silicone breast implants have all been suspect sclerderma triggers.
shaft forming the long axis of the bone made of relatively thick collar of compact bone that surrounds the central cavity
the bone ends, exterior is made of compact bone and their interior contains spongy bone. Joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with thin layer of articular (hyaline) cartilage [cushions opposing bone ends during joint movement and absorbs stress]
are bone forming cells that secrete the bone matrix
derived from the same hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate into macrophages, osteoclasts are giant multinucleate cells located at the site of bone resorption. They break down the bone matrix.
System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; also called the Haversian system.
or mineral salts. It's the inorganic balance of bone tissue, some 65% of its mass. They are largely calcium phosphates--tiny, tightly packed, needle-like crystals in and around collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix.
Process of bone formation
the developmental process of bone formation
Dense irregular connective tissue membrane covering cartilage. Acts like a girdle to resist outward expansion when cartilage is compressed.
cartilage cells, occupy small cavities called lacunae
A congenital condition involving defective cartilage and endochondral bone growth so that the limbs are too short but the membrane bones are of normal size; a type of dwarfism
Abnormal projections from a bone due to bony overgrowth; common in aging bones.
pain in a bone
inflammation of bony tissue
Also called brittle bone disease, a disorder in which the bone matrix contains inadequate collagen, putting it at risk for shattering
Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by pus-forming bacteria that enter the body via a wound (ie. compound bone fracture), or spread from an infection near the bone. Commonly affects the long bones, causing acute pain and fever. May result in joint stiffness, bone destruction, and shortening of a limb. Treatment involves antibiotics, draining any abscesses (local collection of pus), and removing dead bone fragments (which prevent healing).
A form of bone cancer typically arising in a long bone of a limb and most often in those 10-25 years of age. Grows aggressively, painfully eroding the bone; tends to metastasize to the lungs and cause secondary lung tumors. Usual treatment is amputation of the affected bone or limb, followed by chemo and surgical removal of any metastases. Survival rate is about 50% if detected early.
Fracture in a diseased bone involving slight (coughing or quick turn) or no physical trauma. For example, a hip bone weakened by osteoporosis may break and cause the person to fall, rather than breaking because of the fall.
Placing sustained tension on a body region to keep the parts of a fractured bone in proper alignment. Also prevents spasms of skeletal muscles, which would separate the fractured bone ends or crush the spinal cord in the case of vertebral column fractures.