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Indian

created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of the New World; implies commonality that didn't exist; still used for Native Americans

Toltecs

nomadic peoples from beyond northern frontier of sedentary agricultural area in mesoamerica; strong militaristic ethic incorporated human sacrifice

Aztecs

nomadic tribe that used political anarchy to penetrate sedentary agricultural zone in Mesoamerica; est. empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texoco

Tenochtitlan

est. 1325 on Lake Texoco; center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texoco in 1434 to control most of Central plateau of Mesoamerica

Tlacaelel

Aztec advisor 1427-1480; had histories rewritten; expanded human sacrifice as political terror

Pipiltin

members of highest Aztec social rank

Huitzilopochtli

Aztec tribal patron god; Central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god

calpulli

7 clans of Aztec society; later greater than 60 clans; residential groupings

Chinampas

systen of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs

Pochteca

special merchant class in Aztec society; long-distance luxury items

Inca Socialism

An interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.

Twantinsuyu

Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina

Inca

group of clans centered at Cuzco able to create empire in Andean civilization

Pachacuti

Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca

Tupac Yupanqui

ruled 1471-1493; extended northward; rebuilt Quito

Huayna Capac

Inca ruler of Peru 1493-1527; son of Tupac Yupanqui

split inheritance

Inca practice of descent; titles and power went to sucessor; money and land went to male descendants to care for mummy

temple of the sun

Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas

curacas

Ayllu chiefs with priveleges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean soldiers

Mitmaq

Inca colonists in new regions; could be Quecha-speakers; used to pacify new conquest or conquered population moved to new home

Tambos

Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages

Mita

Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.

Quipu

knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the inca to keep financial records

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