Biology Mitosis and Meiosis

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Mitosis and Meiosis and maybe some other biology 10th grade vocabulary.

Hypothesis

a possible answer to a scientific question.

Independent Assortment

During meiosis the random distribution of genes from different chromosomes to the gametes. (pg. 154)

S-Phase

* 2nd stage of interphase. -Cell DNA is copied.

Oogenesis

production of eggs., development of ova

Autosome

chromosomes in body cells 44- are autosomes 2 are sex chromosomes A chromosome that is not a SEX chromosome is a autosome.

Mitosis

-Division of the nucleus -Process by which cells make a duplicate set of chromosomes Cell division has 2 parts: Division of nucleus (M Phase) Division of Cytoplasm.

Telophase

4th Final phase of MITOSIS chromosomes lengthen chromosome 4th Final phase of MITOSIS chromosomes lengthen chromosomes reach opposite poles of the cell and the cytoplasm begins to divide. es reach opposite poles of the cell and the cytoplasm begins to divide. , the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes

Binary Fission

division of prokaryotic cell (lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelle) into 2 offspring cells: 1) prokaryotic cell 2)copied 3) cell begins to divide 4)2 identical haploid cells

Asexual Reproduction

Producing offspring from ONE parent. Does not usually involve meiosis or union of gametes: **** Genetically identical to parent.

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm of the cell. Cyto= Cytoplasm

Haploid

A cell that only contains one set of chromosomes. Meiosis produces haploid cells. Human sperm cells, egg cells. contains only one set of chromosomes Haploid = 1n

Spermatogenesis

Production of sperm.

Meiosis

Meiosis only takes place in testes & ovaries It is the process by which sperm and eggs are formed with 1/2 the number # of chromosomes

What are the phases of the cell cycle? Describe each .

-G cell growth - S DNA replication -G2 preparation for cell division

Control

The CONTROL is the part of the experiment in which the conditions are kept constant. An unchanging variable in an experiment.

G1 Phase

First Stage of interphase Offspring cells grow to mature size (cell growth)

G2 Phase

3rd Stage of interphase. Cell prepares for cell division.

Sexual Reproduction

Producing offspring [Through meiosis and the union of sperm & egg] with combination of genetic material from 2 parent organisms. (pg. 156)

Anaphase

3rd phase of mitosis in which chromosomes separate at the centromere and slowly move centromere first toward opposite poles of dividing cell.

Crossing over

crossing over is a way that chromosomes randomly mix up genetic traits.

Diploid

1n + 1n=2n 2n=diploid a cell that contains both chromosomes of homologous pair. -cells that have 2 SETS of chromosomes all normal human cells (except reproductive cells)

Gamete

egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair. sex cells (sperm, egg) in humans: meiosis produces haploid reproductive cells called gametes.

centromere

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis. The tight constricted area of each chromatid. The centromere holds the chromatids together until they separate in cell division.

Homologous chromosome

The two copies of each autosome are called homologous chromosomes or homologues. , chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis.

Metaphase

2ND stage mitosis the chromosomes line up alone midline of dividing cell. , the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle

Cell Plate

In cytokinesis in plant cells, a membrane bound cell wall forms called CELL PLATE. A membrane that divides newly forming plant cells following mitosis. (similar to cleavage furrow in animal cells.) A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis

Cleavage furrow

the area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell. (pg. 151) cell membrane pinches in cell division.

Independent assortment

during meiosis the random distribution of genes from different

Chromatid

each 1/2 of the chromosome is called a chromatid, one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis

What is the relationship relationship between chromosomes and genes.

chromosome- threadlike structure made up of DNA (occur in pairs) Gene-is the segment of DNA on a chromosome that controls a TRAIT. (occurs in pairs)

What are the stages of cell division? describe them.

Mitosis- nucleus divides -prophase -metaphase -anaphase -telophase -CYTOKINESIS---cytoplasm of cell divides

Polar Body

a small cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced along with the oocyte and later discarded

Prophase

The FIRST STAGE of mitosis &meiosis, characterized by shortening of chromosomes -copied DNA coils into chromosomes.

Interphase

the period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing. DNA replicates

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