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Fort Sumter/Robert Anderson

This fort was located on an island in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. The force their was under the command of this Major. Buchanan refused to yield this fort when South Carolina demanded it, and instead, in January 1861, he ordered an unarmed merchant ship to proceed to this fort with additional troops and supplies. Confederate guns turned it back, and neither section was ready to admit a war had begun.

Crittenden Compromise

The first of compromise proposals submitted in hopes to prevent a civil war. This one was first submitted by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky. This plan was a proposal to reestablish the Missouri Compromise line and extend it westward to the Pacific coast. Slavery would be prohibited north or the line and permitted south of the line. Southerners in the Senate were willing to accept this plan, but the compromise would have required the northerners to abandon their most fundamental position-that slavery should not be allowed to expand- and so they rejected it.

P.G.T. Beauregard

Commander of the Confederate forces at Charleston, he was ordered by the new Confederate govt. to take fort Sumter. When Anderson refused to give up, the Confederates attacked for two days straight until Anderson surrendered.

Homestead Act

Passed in 1862, permitted any citizens or prospective citizen to purchase 160 acres of public land for a small fee after living on it for five years.

Morrill Act

Passed in 1862, transferred substantial public acreage to the state governments, which could now sell the land and use the proceeds to finance public education. This act led to the creation of many new state colleges and universities, the so-called land-grant institutions.

Union Pacific Railroad/Central Pacific Railroad

When congress moved to spur completion of a transcontinental railroad it created these two new federally chartered corporations. The first was to build westward from Omaha and the second was to build eastward from California. The two projects were to meet in the middle and complete the link.

National Bank Acts

1863-1834, this created a new national banking system. Existing or newly formed banks could join the system if they had enough capital and were willing to invest one-third of it in government securities. In return they could issue United States Treasury notes as currency. The new system eliminated much of the chaos and uncertainty in the nation's currency.

Greenbacks

Paper currency printed during the civil war. Was not backed by gold or silver but by the good faith and credit of the government. Their value fluctuated according to the fortunes of the Northern armies.

New York City Draft Riots

With the opposition to the new conscription, riots started breaking out and a few turned violent. This one lasted for four days in July 1863. Over 100 people died. The rioters lynched several African Americans and burned down black homes, businesses, and even and orphanage. This was the bloodiest riot in American history. Only the arrival of federal troops halted the violence.

Copperheads

Also known as Peace Democrats, they were opposed to war and were referred to as this by their enemies.

Andrew Johnson

When Lincoln was nominated for his second term, he was nominated with him as the Vice President. He was from Tennessee and a War Democrat who had opposed his state's decision to secede.

George McClellan

Presidential nomination by the Democrats to run against Lincoln. He was a celebrated former Union general, he adopted a platform denouncing the war and calling for a truce. He repudiated that demand, but the Democrats were clearly the peace party in the campaign, trying to profit from the growing war weariness.

Thaddeus Stevens/Charles Sumner/Benjamin Wade

Radical abolitionists from Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Ohio who wanted to use the war to abolish slavery immediately and completely.

Confiscation Act

In 1861, Congress passed this which declared that all slaves used for "insurrectionary" purposes would be considered freed.

2nd Confiscation Act

Pushed through by radicals in July 1862, this act declared free the slaves of persons supporting the insurrection and authorized the president to employ African American as soldiers.

Emancipation Proclamation

On September 22, 1862, after the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, the president announced his intention to use his war powers to issue and executive order freeing all slaves in the Confederacy. And on January 1, 1863, he formally signed this document, which declared forever free the slaves inside the Confederacy. This did not apply to the border states, which have never seceded from the Union, nor did it affect those parts of the Confederacy already under Union control.

Thirteenth Amendment

Ratified in 1865, abolished slavery as an institution in all parts of the United States.

Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts/Robert Gould Shaw

One of the most well known black regiments. Like most black regiments, it had a white commander. This one happened to be a member of an aristocratic Boston Family.

US Sanitary Commission/Dorothea Dix

An organization of civilian workers, led by this women, that mobilized large numbers of female nurses to serve in field hospitals.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Susan B. Anthony/National Woman's Loyal League

These two women together founded this organization in 1863. They worked simultaneously for the abolition of slavery and the awarding of suffrage to women.

Jefferson Davis/Alexander Stephens

At the constitutional convention in Montgomery a provisional president and vice president were named. They were later elected by the general public, without opposition, for six-year terms. However, neither of them were entirely for secession.

Conscription Act

In 1862 the congress enacted this which subjected all white males between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five to military service for three years.

Army of the Potomac

The Union forces in the east that were under the command of George McClellan.

Ulysses S. Grant

In March 1864, Lincoln finnaly found this general that he trusted to command the war effort. He shared Lincoln's belief in unremitting combat and in making enemy armies and resources, not enemy territory, the target of military efforts.

Committee on the Conduct of the War

A joint investigative committee of the two houses of Congress. It was established in December 1861 and chaired by Senator Benjamin E. Wade of Ohio, it complained constantly of the inadequate ruthlessness of Northern generals, which Radicals on the committee attributed to a secret sympathy among the officers for slavery. The committee's efforts often seriously interfered with the conduct of the war.

Robert E. Lee

In early 1862, Davis named this man as his principal military advisor. But in fact, Davis had no intention of sharing control of stradegy with anyone. After a few months, this man left Richmond to command forces in the field, and for the next two years, Davis planned stradegy alone.

The Monitor & the Merrimac

An ironclad Union ship that arrived off the coast of Va only a few hours before the Merrimac. The Merrimac was a Confederate ironclad ship, later renamed the Virginia, that was built to break the blockade. When the two ships met in battle, neither vessle was able to sink the other, but the Monitor was able to put an end to the Merrimac's raids and preserve the blockade.

Judah Benjamin

The Confederate Secretary of State for most of the war and was an intelligent but undynamic man who attended mostly to routine administrative tasks.

William Seward

Judah Benjamin's counterpart in Washington, he gradually became one of the outstanding American secrataries of state. He had invaluable assistance from Charles Francis Adams.

The Trent Affair & The San Jacinto and Charles Wilkes

Began in late 1861, when two Confederate diplomats slipped through the then-ineffective Union blockade to Havana, Cuba, wherethey boarded an EnglishSteamer, the Trent, for England. Waiting in Cuban waters was the American frigate San Jacinto, commanded by this man. He acted without authorization and stopped the British vessel, arrested the diplomats, and carried them into Boston.

The Alabama Claims

Claims by the US against Great Britain when they sold the CSA 6 war ships during the civil war, which the union claimed was in direct violation of laws of neutrality. The name of these claims was derived from one of the ships.

Samuel Colt

Patented the repeating pistol, or revolver, in 1835.

Oliver Winchester

Introduced the repeating rifle in 1860. The rifle was of more importance than that of the repeating pistol.

US Military Telegraph Corps/Thomas Scott/Andrew Carnegie

Company led by these two men that improved the number of qualified telegraph operators by training and employing over 1,200 of them, also improved the condition of getting telegraph wires into fields were battle were actually being fought.

Irvin McDowell and First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas

Battle took place on July 21, this man led the Union forces and he almost succeeded in dispersing the Confederate forces. But the Southerners managed to stop a last strong Union assult and then began a savage counter-attack. The Union troops suddenly panicked, broke ranks, and retreated chaotically. He was unable to re-organize them and was forced to retreat to Washington.

West Virginia

By the end of 1861, it had liberated the antisecession mountain people of the region, who created their own state government loyal to the Union; the state was admitted to the Union as this in 1863.

David Farragut

Commanded a squadron of ironclads and wooden vessels that smashed past weak Confederate forts near the mouth of the Mississippi, and from there sailed up to New Orleans. The city was virtually defenseless because the Confederate high command had expected the attack to come from the north. The surrender of New Orleans on April 25, 1862, was an important turning point in the war. And from then on the mouth of the Mississippi was closed to Confederate trade.

Peninsular Campaign

McClellan's plan to capture the confederate capital at Richmond. He decided that instead of heading overland directly, he would go a complicated route that he thought would circumvent the Confederate defenses. The navy would carry his troops down the Potamac to a peninsula east of Richmond, betweenthe York and James Rivers; the army would approach the city from there. These combined operations became known as this.

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

Led a Confederate army that staged a rapid march north through the Shenandoah Valley, as if preparing to crss the Potomac and attack Washington. They army was ablet defeat two Union forces and slip away before McDowell could catch them.

Joseph Johnston

Led the Confederate forces against McClellan in the two day Battle of Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines. He was badly wounded and Robert E. Lee replaced him.

John Pope

Leader of a smaller force in northern Virginia that the president ordered McClellan's army to go join.

Ambrose Burnside

McClellan's short-lived replacement who tried to move toward Richmond by crossing the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg. On December 13, he launched a series of hopeless and bloody attacks on Lee. After losing a large part of his army, he withdrew to the north bank of the Rappahannock. He was relieved at his own request. The year 1862 ended with a series of frustrations for the Union.

Joseph Hooker

Commander of the still-formidable Army of the Potomac, which remained north of the Rappahannock, opposite Fredericksburg. Taking part of his army, he crossed the river above Fredericksburg and moved toward the town and Lee's army. But at the last minute, he drew back to a defensive position in a desolate area in the Wilderness. In the Battle of Chancellorsville, that lasted 5 days, Hooker barely managed to escape with his army and Jackson was fataly wounded in battle.

Siege of Vicksburg

In the spring of 1863, Ulysses S. Grant was driving at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. He boldly moved men and supplies over land and by water to an area south of the city were the terrain was good. He attacked from the rear and six weeks later, on July 4, Vicksburg surrendered when the residents were litteraly starving from the longed siege.

George Meade

Replaced Hooker in heading ther Union army of the potomac, starting June 28, 1863. Met the Confederate army, led by Lee, in Gettysburg, PA. There on July 1-3, 1863, they fought the most celebrated battle of the war. He ended up winning when Lee surrendered.

Battle of Gettysburg

Took place at Gettysburg, PA, on July 1-3, 1863, between the Union army, led by Meade, and the Confederate army, led by Lee. After unsuccsesful charges by Lee he had lost about a third of his army and on July 4 he retreated from Gettysburg. The retreat was a great turning point in the war, never again were the weakend Confederate forces able seriously to threathen the Northern territory.

Pickett's Charge

After his first assult on Union forces failed, Lee ordered a second, larger effort. In what is remembered as this, a force of 15,000 Confederate soldiers advanced for almost a mile across open countrey while being swept by Union fire. Only about 5,000 made it up the ridge, and this remnant finally had to surrender or retreat.

William Rosecrans

After occupying Chattanooga on September 9, Union forces under this man began an unwise pursuit of Bragg's retreating Confederate forces. The two armies engaged in western Georgia, in the Battle of Chickamauga. Union forces could not break the Confederate lines and ended up retreating.

William Tecumseh Sherman

One of the leaders of one of the two great offensives for 1864, come up with by Grant. In Georgia, the western army, under this man, would advance toward Atlanta and destroy the remaining Confederate force, now under the command of Joseph E. Johnston.

John Bell Hood

Tried to unsuccessfully to draw Sherman out of Atlanta by moving back up through TN and threatening an invasion of the North. Sherman then sent Union forces to reinforce Nashville. In the Battle of Nashville on December 15-16, 1864, Northern forces practically destroyed what was left of his army.

March to the Sea

When Sherman left Atlanta and headed toward the sea. Living off the land, destroying supplies it could not use, his army cut a sixt-mile-wide swath of desolation across Georgia. Sherman sought not only to deprive the Confederate army of war materials and railroad communications but also to break the will of the Southern people by burning towns and plantations along his route. By Dec 20, he had reached Savannah and they surrendered two days later. Early in 1865, he continued his destructive march and was virtually unopposed. That is until he was in North Carolina, where a small force under Johnston could not do more than cause a brief delay.

Appomattox Courthouse

A small town in Virginia, where Lee arranged to meet Grant in a private home. He met him on April 9, when he surrendered what was left of his forces.

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