Introduction to Pharmacology Review

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A patient who has asphyxia might be effectively treated with which of the following?

First aid to remove body; emergency resuscitation,expired air resuscitation, CPR cardiac pulmonary resuscitation

A patient who has had a myocardial infarction has residual problems with left ventricular dysfunction. Which of the following may be prescribed for this condition?

ALTEPLASE (activase)

A patient who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) might be safely prescribed which of the following NSAID?

quinolone antibiotics; salicylates; streptokinase; sulfonamides; sulindac; tamoxifen; tetracyclines; thiazide diuretics; thyroid drugs; tricyclic antidepressants; vitamin E.

A patient who is taking warfarin (Coumadin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and diazepam (Valium) asks if he can get a prescription for cimetidine (Tagamet) for his peptic ulcers. He said that he saw an advertisement on television and thinks this might help him. Which of the following would be the correct response?

you do not need more selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Alteplase (Activase) is useful in the treatment of myocardial infarction because of its ability to do which of the following?

Activase is a trombolytic clot- dissolving agents. Is a plasminogen activator that causes fibrinolysis at the site of a blood clot.

An older adult patient who has been taking mineral oil for relief of constipation does not want to take the psyllium (Metamucil) that her doctor has recommended for daily use. She says that the oil works when she gets "clogged up," and it's much cheaper than "that powdered stuff." What facts should be explained to the patient?

Mineral oil is indigestible and not absorbed. It is purely a mechanical lubricant. It prevents absorption of fat

Because of certain side effects of atomoxetine (Strattera), children taking this medication should be monitored for:

it has been shown to decrease the appetite; in addition headache; nausea; abdominal pain; and increase in blood pressure and heart rate.

Because of the common side effects produced by many antilipidemic medications, patients who are taking these drugs should have which of the following laboratory tests performed periodically?

antilipidemic medications.every 6 month to check the elevation of liver enzymes .

Because of the occurrence of mental disturbances, Tagamet (cimetidine) is not recommended for use with?

Cimetidine inhibit the effect of Histamine on the parietal cells that produce hydrochloric acid it greatly reduces acid output in the stomach it is used to treat peptic ulcers.

Beclomethasone, triamcinolone, and epinephrine would be effective in treating which of the following?

BECLOMETHASONE: nasal spay of seasonal rhinitis.
TRIAMCINOLONE: asthma
EPINEPHRINE: acute asthma.

Bethanechol (Urecholine) is used in the treatment of which of the following?

Post operative abdominal distention urinary retention; retention of gastric contents.

Dinoprostone (Prostin E2) may be used for what side effects?

Evacuated a uterus when a missed abortion or fetal death has ocurred.

Extrapyramidal side effects include?

SSRIs Drug interaction with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

For treating depression in the elderly, which of the following medications would be useful because it does not cause overstimulation on days when depression does not occur?

Imiprimine hydrochloride. One day when an older individual is depressed this agent has a mood brightening effect and when the individual is not depressed it does not produce overstimulation.

For treatment of atrial fibrillation what might be prescribed?

DOFETILIDE- DRONEDARONE HYDROCHLORIDE
IBUTILIDE FUMARATE

How might capsaicin be used in the relief of pain?

can be applied topically to relieve pain for the topical treatment of muscle and joint disorders. Epidural and IV infusions of local anesthetics.

In addition to measuring prothrombin times, which of the following is also used to monitor the effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy with heparin?

prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis

In what location does digestion of food begin?

mouth

Medications that might be added to antitussive agents to depress the cough reflex would include which of the following?

numerous over the counter -otc- cough and cold remedies

Methylphenidate - daytrana differs from methylphenidate - ritalin in what way?

METHILPHENIDATE -DAYTRANA is a a transdermal system (patch)

Name a combination product used in the treatment of Parkinson disease?

CARBIDOPA used in combination with levodopa

Nonmalignant chronic pain may be which types of phenomena?

Depression

Optimum vessel health is most likely associated with which of the following cholesterol levels?

160 mg/dL is optimal for vascular health LDL should ideally be less than 70 mg/dL

Pancuronium (Pavulon) or succinylcholine (Anectine) might be prescribed for use in which of the following procedures?

Pancuronium bromide or succinylcholine: neuromuscular blocking agent is used to provide short-term skeletal muscle relaxation to facilitate procedures such as endotracheal intubation- endoscopic examination; ventilator therapy or surgery

Prostaglandins are produced in which of the following body tissues?

Produced by the prostate gland.

Ramelteon (Rozemerem) is indicated for which of the following sleep disturbances?

Insomnia

Reversal of overdoses of narcotic and opoid agents is managed with which of the following?

Methods of guarding against abuse of the opoids may include a medication use agreement and periodic drug testing. When an agent is discontinued a gradual decrease in dosage mimizes withdrawal symptoms.

Skeletal muscle relaxants may be used in conjunction with analgesic agents for the following conditions?

It is generally considered to be used for orthopedic manipulations and for electro-conpulsive therapy.

The condition in which the heart does not circulate blood at a satisfactory rate is known as:

Arrhytmia

The function of an inotropic drug is to:

Increase the contractility of the Myocardium

The most commonly prescribed medications for the relief of mild pain are members of which category?

Acetaminophen; aspirin a nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drug (NSAID) OR NONPIOID analgesic

The oldest and most common NSAID is which of the following?

Aspirin

The patient beginning treatment of glaucoma with pilocarpine should be instructed to expect what side effects?

Stinging and burning in the eye and headache.

The risk of Reye syndrome can be avoided in children with fever by using what antipyretic agents?

aspirin

The route of choice for administration of heparin is

Parenterally

The substance that functions as respiratory stimulant in the body is:

O carbon dioxide

Therapeutic level of lithium may be associated with which of the following symptoms?

Fine hand tremor polyuria; thirst; nausea and diarrhea.

To improve appetite and digestion in a nursing home client; what might be prescribed?

...

Weaning patients from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) will reduce the likelihood of the following post-treatment symptoms?

Hyponamic episodes and increased energy; anxiety; and crying spells; sedation and increase appetite and excessive thirst.

What are characterizes absence seizures?

A brief impairment of consciousness which usually last no more than a few seconds.

What beta-blockers acts primarily on the myocardium?

Because they block the beta adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nerves system.

What classes of antidepressant drugs is useful in pain management?

amitriptyline-Imipramine- desipramine- doxepin-and nortriptyline

What drug is prescribed for the treatment of restless legs syndrome?

Pramipexole (mirapex) Ropinirole (requip)

What drug(s) is extremely effective in controlling and preventing ventricular fibrillation?

Lidocaine hydrochloride (xylocaine)

What is a protective substance found in the stomach?

gastric juice or mucin

What is used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis?

Pancrelipase, creon; ultrase;viobase

What is used to maintain a lower serum uric acid level to prevent attacks of gout?

NSAID or hidroxychloroquine; colchine probenecid; febuxostat

What is, commonly used to evacuate the bowels before surgery, contains a large amount of sugar and should be used with caution for diabetic patients?

electrolytes for oral solutions (melytely - golytely)

What possible side effects should be mentioned when instructing a patient who is starting treatment with methyldopa (Aldomet)?

Hemolytic anemia, drug fever, drowsiness, weakness, and nasal stuffiness.

What produce respiratory depression?

Doxapran-HCI- aka- Dopran

What provides a mechanical barrier to gastric ulcers?

Thick viscous mucous material

What synthetic opioid agent is preferred over morphine in obstetrics?

...

What would be a good treatment option for mild chronic pain?

Hitting pad- topical therapy such as aspercreme- ben-gay; Ibufreen

What would be the most appropriate choice of an analgesic agent for the patient who has a recent head injury?

morphine

Where is the respiratory center located?

Medula and Pons

Which are characteristic symptoms of heart failure?

Dyspnea, edema, and fatigue

Which medication is effective in the control of tonic-clonic seizures?

tegretol-zarontin-flebatol-keppa-lamictral-dilantin-neurontin

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