Chapter 5 Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure

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Covalent Bond

A bond that results from the sharing of electrons between atoms (valence electrons)

Molecule

The unit of matter held together by covalent bonds. The electrons from 1 atom are attracted to the protons of another atom.

Structural Formula

Graphic representation of a molecule showing atoms, bonds and their relative arrangement.

Chemical Formula

Written representation of a molecule's atoms.

Bond Dissociation Energy

The energy needed to completely break a covalent bond in a molecule in the gaseou state.

Ionic Compound Properties

High melting point in solids, dissolve in water to form ions, solutions of ions are good conductors of electricity

Covalent Compound Properties

Low melting points, contains solids liquids and gases, strong internal covalent bonds but weak intermolecular bonds.

Electronegativity

How hard an atom "pulls" on the electrons. Has to do with the atoms affinity for electrons.

Periodic Trends of Electronegativity

F pulls hardest (top right), Cs pulls least (bottom left)

Polarity

If the electrons are pulled to one side more than the other, one side of a bond has more negative (d-) while the other has more positive (d+)

Naming Molecular Compounds

1. Cation like comes first, then anion like.
2. Cation like keeps elemental name
3. Anion like gets "ide" ending
4. Prefixes are used to specify number of each atom (anion)

Lewis Dot Structures

Drawing of molecules where electrons are shown as dots around elemental symbols

Non-bonding Pairs

Lone pairs of electrons around their respective atom.

Resonance

When one Lewis structure is not enough. Example O3

Resonance Structure

Square brackets around molecule with double-sided arrow to signify resonance

Formal Charge

A convenient way of assigning charges to individual atoms in a molecule. =column - things

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repultion Theory

VSEPR. All pairs of electrons get the maximum amount of space available.

Linear

Two charge system

Trigonal Planar

Three charge system

Tetrahedral

Four charge system

Trigonal Bipyramidal

Five charge system

Octahedral

Six charge system

Bent

Three charge system with two atoms around central atom and one lone pair of electrons

Trigonal Pyramidal

Four charge system with three atoms around central atom and one lone pair of electrons

Bent

Four charge system with two atoms around center atom and two lone pairs of electrons

See Saw

Five charge system with four atoms around central atom and one lone pair of electrons

T shaped

Five charge system with three atoms around central atom and two lone pairs of electrons

Bent

Five charge system with two atoms around central atom and three lone pairs of electrons

Square Pyramidal

Six charge system with five atoms around central atom and one lone pair of electrons

Square Planar

Six charge system with four atoms around central atom and two lone pairs of electrons

T shaped

Six charge system with three atoms around central atom and three lone pairs of electrons

Linear

Six charge system with two aroms around central atom and foour lone pairs of electrons

Valence Bond Theory

Used to describe the way electrons are shared in covalent bonds

Sigma Orbitals

Result from head-on overlap of atomic orbital between 2 nuclei

Pi Orbitals

Result from edge on (sideways) overlap of atomic orbitals (d or p orbitals)

Molecular Orbital Theory

Atomic orbitals combine to form these orbitals. Has two types: bonding and anti bonding

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