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This chapter begins by discussing how soldiers can interview a company, join the army, and perhaps later on join the company he or she initially selected. Next, recruitment is defined and alternatives to recruitment are explained which includes a discussion of contingent workers of the future. This is followed by a discussion of the external environment of recruitment and promotion policies. A description of the recruitment process precedes a discussion of internal recruitment methods. Then, external sources of recruitment, online recruitment methods, and job search scams are examined. Traditional external recruiting methods are presented next. Then the importance of tailoring recruitment methods and sources is discussed. The chapter concludes with a global perspective entitled "Our Company Headquarters Has Been Outsourced!"

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Process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate qualifications, to apply for jobs with an organization.

recruitment

Described as the "disposable American workforce" by a former secretary of labor, have a nontraditional relationship with the worksite employer and work as part-timers, temporaries, or independent contractors.

contingent workers

Policy of filling vacancies above entry-level positions with current employees.

Promotion from within (PFW)

Document that specifies job title, department, the date the employee is needed for work, and other details.

Employee requisition

Where qualified candidates are located.

Recruitment sources

Specific means used to attract potential employees to the firm.

Recruitment methods

Procedure for informing employees that job openings exist.

Job posting

Procedure that permits employees who believe that they possess the required qualifications to apply for a posted position.

Job bidding

Person whose primary responsibility is to use the Internet in the recruitment process (also called cyber recruiter).

Internet recruiter

Online recruiting method engaged in by a single employer or group of employers to attract a large number of applicants to the company.

Virtual job fair

Job sites accessible from a company homepage that list available company positions and provide a way for applicants to apply for specific jobs.

Corporate career Websites

An alliance among the National Association of Colleges and Employers, DirectEmployers Association, and Symplicity Corporation; a national recruiting network and suite of web-based recruiting and career services automation tools serving the needs of colleges, employers and job candidates.

NACElink Network

Websites that cater to a specific profession.

Niche sites

Recruiting method engaged in by a single employer or group of employers to attract a large number of applicants for interviews.

Job fair

Special form of recruitment that involves placing students in temporary jobs with no obligation either by the company to hire the student permanently or by the student to accept a permanent position with the firm following graduation.

Internship

Recruiters going to events being attended by individuals the company is seeking.

Event recruiting

Army recruiters have another means of enticing young men and women to enlist in the Army. Partnership for Youth Success (PaYS) represents one such program. PaYS is an enlistment option that enables a young man or woman to select a post-Army partner for an employment interview when joining the Army, Army Reserve or advanced ROTC. PaYS is designed to connect soldiers with post-Army opportunities before they even join.

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Process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate qualifications, to apply for jobs with an organization.

RECRUITMENT DEFINED

Firm should consider its alternatives before engaging in recruitment.

ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT

Process of hiring an external provider to do the work that was previously done internally.

OUTSOURCING

Contingent workers, described as the "disposable American workforce" by a former secretary of labor, have a nontraditional relationship with the worksite employer and work as part-timers, temporaries, or independent contractors. Contingent workers are the human equivalents of just-in-time inventory. These disposable workers permit distinct advantages: maximum flexibility for the employer and lower labor costs. Historically, contingent workers have been called the bookends of recessions. They are the first to go when a recession begins and the last to be recalled when the economy gets better.

ARE CONTINGENT WORKERS THE WORKFORCE OF THE FUTURE?

Company that leases employees to other businesses.

PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYER ORGANIZATION (EMPLOYEE LEASING

Most commonly used method of meeting short-term fluctuations in work volume

OVERTIME

Of particular importance is the demand for and supply of specific skills in the labor market.

LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS

Active job seekers, whether presently employed or not, are committed to finding another job. Passive candidates are typically employed, satisfied with their employer, and content in their current role. However, if the right opportunity came along, they might like to learn more.

ACTIVE OR PASSIVE JOB SEEKERS

Nondiscriminatory practices in recruitment are absolutely essential

LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS

Organization can stress a policy of promotion from within its own ranks or a policy of filling positions from outside the organization. Promotion from within is the policy of filling vacancies above entry-level positions with current employees.

PROMOTION POLICIES

Document that specifies job title, department, date the employee is needed for work, and other details.

EMPLOYEE REQUISITION

Places where qualified candidates can be found

Recruitment sources

Specific means used to attract potential employees to the firm.

Recruitment methods

Management should be able to identify current employees who are capable of filling positions as they become available.

INTERNAL RECRUITMENT METHODS

Job posting: Procedure for informing employees that job openings exist.

JOB POSTING AND JOB BIDDING

Procedure that permits employees who believe that they possess the required qualifications to apply for a posted position.

Job bidding

Employees can serve an important role in the recruitment process by actively soliciting applications from their friends and associates.

EMPLOYEE REFERRALS

Organizations concerned with recruiting clerical and entry-level employees often depend on high schools and vocational schools.

HIGH SCHOOLS AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS—

Number of community colleges are sensitive to the specific employment needs in their local labor market and graduate highly sought-after students with marketable skills.

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

—Potential professional, technical, and management employees are typically found in these institutions.

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

—When recent experience is required, competitors and other firms in the same industry or geographic area may be the most important source of recruits.

COMPETITORS IN THE LABOR MARKET

Smart employers try to get their best ex-employees to come back.

FORMER EMPLOYEES—

Individuals who are unemployed, regardless of the reason, often provide a valuable source of recruitment.

UNEMPLOYED—

Typically has a proven work history, are flexible, motivated, and drug free.

MILITARY PERSONNEL—

Typically has a proven work history, are flexible, motivated, and drug free.

SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS—

—Some organizations have discovered it beneficial to hire ex-offenders.

EX-OFFENDERS

Online recruiting revolutionized the way companies recruit employees and job seekers search and apply for jobs.

ONLINE RECRUITMENT METHODS

Person whose primary responsibility is to use the Internet in the recruitment process (also called cyber recruiter).

INTERNET RECRUITER—

Online recruiting method engaged in by a single employer or group of employers to attract a large number of applicants to the company.

VIRTUAL JOB FAIRS—

Job sites accessible from a company homepage that list available company positions and provide a way for applicants to apply for specific jobs.

CORPORATE CAREER WEBSITE—

Weblogs, or blogs, have changed the ways in which individuals access information. Google or a blog search engine such as Technorati.com can be used.

WEBLOGS (BLOGS FOR SHORT

Firms utilize employment Websites by typing in key job criteria, skills, and experience and indicating their geographic location.

GENERAL-PURPOSE JOB BOARDS—monster.com careerbuilder.com

—The alliance among the National Association of Colleges and Employers, DirectEmployers Association, and Symplicity Corporation is a national recruiting network and suite of web based recruiting and career services automation tools serving the needs of colleges, employers and job candidates.

NACElink Network

—Certain large companies have begun pooling job candidates through a consortium known as AllianceQ. Those passed over by one company are invited to submit their résumés to the AllianceQ database.

ALLIANCEQ

Websites that cater to a specific profession.

NICHE SITES—

Sites are now available to assist this segment of the workforce. Professionals searching for freelance work are increasingly turning to Websites that let them market themselves globally.

CONTRACT WORKERS' SITES—

After years of focusing primarily on professionals and their prospective employers, the big general employment job sites are trying to attract blue-collar and service workers.

HOURLY WORKERS' JOB SITES—

—"Social networking" is the business buzzword in recruiting these days. As previously mentioned, it is well known that networking is one of the best recruiting tools and numerous websites have been developed to utilize social network recruiting. Sites such as Twitter, Craigslist, Facebook and LinkedIn are used.

SOCIAL NETWORK RECRUITING

The depressed high unemployment economy has brought out job scammers in mass. In searching for a job online, one should be alert to the fact that there are those out there who will attempt to steal personal information you and set up fraudulent credit-card accounts.

JOB SEARCH SCAMS

Recruitment methods are the specific means through which potential employees are attracted to the firm.

TRADITIONAL EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT METHODS

Way of communicating the employment needs within the firm to the public through media such as newspaper, radio, television, trade journals, and billboards.

MEDIA ADVERTISING—

Private employment agencies, often called "head hunters," are best known for recruiting white-collar employees and offer an important service in bringing qualified applicants and open positions together.

PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES—

Operated by each state, receive overall policy direction from the U.S. Employment Service.

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES—

Most common use of recruiters is with technical and vocational schools, community colleges, colleges, and universities.

RECRUITERS—

recruiting method engaged in by a single employer or group of employers to attract a large number of applicants for interviews.

JOB FAIRS—

Special form of recruitment that involves placing students in temporary jobs with no obligation either by the company to hire the student permanently or by the student to accept a permanent position with the firm following graduation.

INTERNSHIPS—

Organizations used by some firms to locate experienced professionals and executives when other sources prove inadequate. The typical placement fee for an executive search is 33 percent of the executive's first-year pay.

EXECUTIVE SEARCH FIRMS—

Associations in many business professions such as finance, marketing, information technology, and human resources provide recruitment and placement services for their members

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS—.

If an organization has the reputation of being a good place to work, it may be able to attract good prospective employees without extensive recruitment efforts.

UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS—

Firms pair potential hires and managers in a warm, causal environment that encourages on-the-spot job offers.

OPEN HOUSES—

Recruiters going to events being attended by individuals the company is seeking.

EVENT RECRUITING—

Some firms are offering sign-on bonuses to high-demand prospects.

SIGN-ON BONUSES—

Unique way to get individuals interested in applying for positions.

COMPETITIVE GAMES—

For recruitment efforts to be successful, they must be tailored to meet the needs of each firm.

TAILORING RECRUITMENT METHODS TO SOURCES

The job of the HR professional when the company headquarters has been offshored is certainly challenging. There are numerous examples of offshoring headquarters. Doosan, based in Seoul, South Korea, bought the Bobcat unit from Ingersoll Rand Co. in 2007.

OUR COMPANY HEADQUARTERS HAS BEEN OUTSOURCED!

This chapter begins with a discussion of E-Verify and biometrics, followed by a discussion of the significance of employee selection and identification of environmental factors that affect the selection process. Next, the general selection process and applicant tracking systems is described. The next two sections involve preliminary screening and review of applications and résumés. A section on sending résumés via the Internet follows, and the advantages and potential problems and characteristics of properly designed selection tests are then explained. Test validation approaches, and types of employment tests are next discussed, and topics related to genetic testing, graphoanalysis, and polygraph tests are described. Aspects of online assessment and the use of assessment centers are then presented, and the importance of the employment interview and the general types of interviewing is discussed. Then we examine the various methods of interviewing, interviewing through crowd sourcing, potential interviewing problems, and concluding the interview. Next, the use of pre-employment screening, including background investigations and reference checks is presented, followed by a discussion of negligent hiring. Topics related to the selection decision, the medical examination, notification of candidates, candidate relationship management, and automated reference checking is discussed. Metrics for evaluating recruitment/selection effectiveness are then explained. The chapter concludes with a global perspective entitled "Leadership Effectiveness in the Global Environment."

CHAPTER 6

Process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position and the organization.

Selection:

Number of qualified applicants recruited for a particular job.

Applicant pool:

Number of people hired for a particular job compared to the total number of individuals in the applicant pool.

Selection ratio:

Software application designed to help an enterprise select employees more efficiently.

Applicant tracking system (ATS):

Goal-directed summary of a person's experience, education, and training developed for use in the selection process.

Résumé:

Words or phrases that are used to search databases for résumés that match.

Keywords:

Résumé that contains an adequate description of the job seeker's characteristics and industry-specific experience presented in keyword terms in order to accommodate the computer search process.

Keyword résumé:

Uniformity of the procedures and conditions related to administering tests.

Standardization:

Condition that is achieved when everyone scoring a given test obtains the same results.

Objectivity

Frame of reference for comparing an applicant's performance with that of others.

Norm:

Extent to which a selection test provides consistent results.

Reliability:

Extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure.

Validity:

: Test validation method that compares the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance determined, for example, by performance appraisal.

Criterion-related validity

Test validation method whereby a person performs certain tasks that are actual samples of the kind of work a job requires or completes a paper-and-pencil test that measures relevant job knowledge.

Content validity:

Test validation method that determines whether a test measures certain constructs, or traits, that job analysis finds to be important in performing a job.

Construct validity:

Tests that determine general reasoning ability, memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability.

Cognitive aptitude tests:

Tests that measure strength, coordination, and dexterity.

Psychomotor abilities tests:

: Tests designed to measure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the job for which he or she is applying.

Job-knowledge tests

Tests that require an applicant to perform a task or set of tasks representative of the job.

Work-sample tests:

: Tests that indicate the occupation a person is most interested in and the one likely to provide satisfaction.

Vocational interest tests

Self-reported measures of traits, temperaments, or dispositions.

Personality tests:

selection approach that requires individuals to perform activities similar to those they might encounter in an actual job.

Assessment center:

Tests given to identify predisposition to inherited diseases, including cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, and congenital diseases.

Genetic testing:

: Use of handwriting analysis as a selection factor.

Graphoanalysis

Goal-oriented conversation in which the interviewer and applicant exchange information.

Employment interview:

Management's perception of the degree to which the prospective employee will fit in with the firm's culture or value system.

Organizational fit:

: Interview in which the job applicant is asked probing, open-ended questions.

Unstructured interview

: Interview in which the interviewer asks each applicant for a particular job the same series of job-related questions.

Structured interview

Structured interview in which applicants are asked to relate actual incidents from their past relevant to the target job.

Behavioral interview:

Meeting in which several job applicants interact in the presence of one or more company representatives.

Group interview:

Interview approach in which several of the firm's representatives interview a candidate at the same time.

Board interview:

: Form of interview in which the interviewer intentionally creates anxiety.

Stress interview

Method of conveying both positive and negative job information to an applicant in an unbiased manner.

Realistic job preview (RJP):

Information from individuals who know the applicant that provide additional insight into the information furnished by the applicant and verification of its accuracy.

Reference checks:

Liability a company incurs when it fails to conduct a reasonable investigation of an applicant's background, and then assigns a potentially dangerous person to a position in which he or she can inflict harm.

Negligent hiring:

: Liability former employers may incur when they fail to offer a warning about a particularly severe problem with a past employee.

Negligent referral

Employers are now required to use E-Verify to check out new hires and incumbent employees at federal contractors and subcontractors with contracts of $100,000 or more. E-Verify is a web-based system that lets employers check Social Security and visa numbers submitted by workers against government databases. Not everyone is pleased with E-verify. Some want to pursue a biometric verification tool that would replace or enhance E-Verify. A biometric identification card is the primary focus of immigration reform legislation being debated in Congress. It would be the primary tool in a national system for identifying people. To accomplish this, every U.S. worker would have to present a birth certificate and other identification documents, then have his or her biometric, such as a fingerprint, captured.

FROM E-VERIFY TO BIOMETRICS?

Selection is the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position and the organization. Properly matching people with jobs and the organization is the goal of the selection process. If individuals are overqualified, underqualified, or for any reason do not fit either the job or the organization's culture, they will be ineffective and probably leave the firm, voluntarily or otherwise.

SIGNIFICANCE OF EMPLOYEE SELECTION

Numerous environmental factors affect the selection process.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELECTION PROCESS

—Selection process affects, and is affected by, virtually every other HR function

OTHER HR FUNCTIONS.

Legislation, executive orders, and court decisions have a major impact on human resource management.

LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS—

Time available to make the selection decision can have a major effect on the selection process.

SPEED OF DECISION MAKING—

Different approaches to selection are generally taken for filling positions at different levels in the organization.

ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY—

Number of qualified applicants recruited for a particular job.

APPLICANT POOL—

Sector of the economy in which individuals are to be employed—private, governmental, or not-for-profit—can also affect the selection process.

TYPE OF ORGANIZATION—

Many firms use a probationary period that permits evaluating an employee's ability based on performance

PROBATIONARY PERIOD—.

An applicant tracking system (ATS) is a software application designed to help an enterprise select employees more efficiently. Current ATSs permit human resource and line managers to oversee the entire selection process.

APPLICANT TRACKING SYSTEMS

Selection process often begins with an initial screening of applicants to remove individuals who obviously do not meet the position requirements.

PRELIMINARY SCREENING

Application form must reflect not only the firm's informational needs but also EEO requirements.

PRELIMINARY SCREENING

A résumé is a goal-directed summary of a person's experience, education, and training developed for use in the selection process.

REVIEW OF RÉSUMÉS

E-mail has become a popular method of providing résumés to organizations.

SENDING RÉSUMÉS VIA THE INTERNET

Evidence suggests that the use of tests is becoming more prevalent for assessing an applicant's qualifications and potential for success.

SELECTION TESTS: ADVANTAGES AND POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

—Selection testing can be a reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates from a pool of applicants if they are job related.

ADVANTAGES OF SELECTION TESTS

Selection tests may accurately predict an applicant's ability to perform the job, the can do, but they are less successful in indicating the extent to which the individual will be motivated to perform it, the will do. Employers should be aware that tests might be unintentionally discriminatory. Test anxiety can also be a problem.

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS OF SELECTION TESTS—

xProperly designed selection tests are standardized, objective, based on sound norms, reliable and—of utmost importance—valid.

Selection tests may accurately predict an applicant's ability to perform the job, the can do, but they are less successful in indicating the extent to which the individual will be motivated to perform it, the will do. Employers should be aware that tests might be unintentionally discriminatory. Test anxiety can also be a problem.

Uniformity of the procedures and conditions related to administering tests.

STANDARDIZATION

Condition that is achieved when everyone scoring a given test obtains the same results.

OBJECTIVITY—

Frame of reference for comparing an applicant's performance with that of others.

NORM—

Extent to which a selection test provides consistent results.

RELIABILITY—

Extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. If a test cannot indicate ability to perform the job, it has no value as a predictor.

VALIDITY—

Uniform Guidelines established three approaches that may be followed to validate selection tests: criterion-related validity, content validity, and construct validity.

TEST VALIDATION APPROACHES

Test validation method that compares the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance determined, for example, by performance appraisal.

CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY—

Determined when the firm obtains test scores and the criterion data at essentially the same time.

Concurrent validity:

Involves administering a test and later obtaining the criterion information.

Predictive validity:

Test validation method whereby a person performs certain tasks that are actual samples of the kind of work a job requires or completes a paper-and-pencil test that measures relevant job knowledge.

CONTENT VALIDITY—

Test validation method that determines whether a test measures certain constructs, or traits, that job analysis finds to be important in performing a job.

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY—

Individuals differ in characteristics related to job performance. Various tests measure these differences.

TYPES OF EMPLOYMENT TESTS

Tests that determine general reasoning ability, memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability.

COGNITIVE APTITUDE TESTS—

Measure strength, coordination, and dexterity.

PSYCHOMOTOR ABILITIES TESTS—

Tests designed to measure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the job for which he or she is applying.

JOB KNOWLEDGE TESTS—

Tests that require an applicant to perform a task or set of tasks representative of the job.

WORK-SAMPLE TESTS—

Tests that indicate the occupation a person is most interested in and the one likely to provide satisfaction.

VOCATIONAL INTEREST TESTS—

Self-reported measures of traits, temperaments, or dispositions

PERSONALITY TESTS—.

Organizations are increasingly using the Internet to assess various skills required by applicants. Firms may design and have their own tests available online or use an external source.

ONLINE ASSESSMENT

—Selection approach that requires individuals to perform activities similar to those they might encounter in an actual job.

ASSESSMENT CENTERS

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