Chapter 7 Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton

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Mississippi State Anatomy Test 2; Dr. James Stewart- Fall 2012

206

How many bones are in the human body?

Bones, Cartilages, Joints or Articulations, Ligaments

The skeleton consists of... (4 different things)

ligaments

connect 2 bones

joints or articulations

junctions between skeletal elements

Axial and Appendicular skeleton

The skeleton is divided in to these two systems...

axial skeleton

forms long axis the body

skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

the axial skeleton consists of these three groups of bones...

Appendicular Skeleton

This system is the appendages of the body

upper limbs (arms), pectoral girdle (shoulder), lower limbs (legs), and pelvic girdle

The appendicular skeleton consists of...

cranial and facial bones

The skull consists of...

cranium

encloses the cranial cavity, which supports and protects the brain

cranial bones

These serve as attachment sites for some head and neck muscles

Anterior

Facial bones are the __________ aspect of the skull

facial bones

forms framework of the face, forms cavities for sense organs of sight, taste and smell, provides openings for passage of air and food, hold the teeth, and anchor the muscles of the face

sutures

interlocking, immovable joints

flat; sutures

Most skull bones are _______ and united by _______.

cranial "cavity"

This houses the brain

middle and inner ear, nasal cavity, orbits and sinuses

Smaller cavities in the cranium house which 5 structures?

foramina, canals, and fissures

3 different kinds of openings in the cranium

spinal cord, blood vessels, twelve cranial nerves: I-XII

Openings in the cranium are for these structures...

frontal bone

cranial bone the forms the forehead and roof of orbits

parietal bones (paired)

cranial bones that form the superior and lateral skull

occipital bone

cranial bone that forms the back of the head and foramen magnum

temporal bones (paired)

cranial bones that form the temples

sphenoid bone

cranial bone that spans base of cranial floor and batwings

ethmoid bone

cranial bone that is between nasal cavity and orbits

6 bones of the cranium

sphenoid, occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal, ethmoid bone(s)

irregular, sawtooth

appearance of sutures on the skull

coronal, sagittal, squamous, and lambdoid

Four largest sutures of the skull

coronal suture

Suture where parietal bone meets frontal bone.

Sagittal Suture

Suture where left and right parietal bones meet.

Squamous Suture

Suture where parietal and temporal bones meet.

Lambdoid

Suture where parietal and occipital bones meet.

Sutures

These are where bones articulate with parietal bones.

Vault

also called "calvaria" or skull cap; this forms superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the skull and forehead

Base or floor

inferior part of cranium

cranial base

Prominent bony ridges divides the...

Anterior, Middle, and Posterior

The three "fossae" (steps) of the cranium.

four

how many different regions does the temporal bone have?

Sphenoid Bone

spans the width of the cranial floor

Central Body, Greater Wings, Lesser Wings, Pterygoid

Four parts of the Sphenoid bone.

optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum and foramen ovale, foramen spinosum

The five openings in the sphenoid bone.

Superior orbital fissure

Opening in the sphenoid bone that allows cranial nerves for eye movement to pass through.

foramen rotudum and foramen ovale

Opening in the sphenoid bone that allows cranial nerves for maxillary and mandibular nerves to pass through.

Foramen Spinosum

Opening in sphenoid bone that allows the menigeal artery for the parietal and temporal bones to pass through

Ethmoid bone

The thin walled and delicate bone that is deeply located. It forms the medial bony area between nasal cavity and orbits.

cristi gali

This structure separates the 2 cribiform plates

cribiform plates

Part of the ethmoid bone that is sieve-like. It secures the brain to the cranial cavity.

Ethmoid Sinuses and Nasal Conchae

These are structures of the ethmoid bone and form the nasal cavities.

orbital plate

This is the medial wall of orbits that is a part of the ethmoid bone

facial bones

These 8 bones are collectively called __________: mandible, maxillae, zygomatics, nasal, lacrimal, palatines, vomer, and inferior nasal conchae

mandible

The lower jaw bone; also the largest and strongest bone in the face.

maxillae (paired)

The upper jaw bone and central part of facial skeleton.

zygomatics (paired)

The cheek bones.

nasal (paired)

The bone that forms the bridge of the nose.

Lacrimal (paired)

This bone has a fossa that contains the lacrimal sac.

Palatines (paired)

These bones form the hard palate.

Vomer

The bone forms the inferior part of the nasal septum.

Horizontal Body of Mandible

The jawline of the mandible that anchors lower teeth.

Alveoli Margin

Tooth sockets on the mandible are also called....

mental protuberance

Part of the mandible that is the chin.

coronoid process

where the temporalis muscle attaches to the mandible

mandibular condyle

This part of the mandible is attached to the temporal bone.

Coronoid process, mandibular condyle, and mandibular notch

Name the attachment site of the mandible (3).

mandible

The maxilla articulates with all other bones in the face, except the ___________.

palatine process

This process articulates with the anterior region of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth)

frontal processes

These processes articulate with the bridge of the nose.

Maxillary sinuses

These sinuses articulate with the paranasal sinuses

Zygomatic processes

This process articulates with the zygomatic bone

Inferior orbital fissure

This fissure articulates with the floor of orbit.

Alveoli Margin

This part of the mandible articulates with the teeth.

bone and cartilage

The nasal cavity is constructed of bone and cartilage.

Ethmoid's cribiform plate

This makes up the roof of the nasal cavity.

Floor of nasal cavity/roof of mouth/hard palate

The palatine processes of the maxillae and horizontal plates of palatine bones make up the ______________.

meatus

means "passage"... example: the grooves formed by the chonche

chonchae

Swirling air through the _________ heats and moistens air; also, mucus filters through this.

orbits

Cone-shaped bony cavities; These hold the eyes, muscles that move the eye, some fat and tear-producing glands, and the optic canal.

optic canal

The optic nerve passes through the ____________.

7

How many bones form the orbit of the eye?

Sinuses

Air-filled sacs in the bones

Paranasal sinuses

Sinuses that cluster around and connect to the nasal cavity at meatus inferior.

paranasal sinuses

These sinuses are extensions of the nasal cavity and are lined by same mucous membrane and have same function.

hyoid bone

This is the U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone.

inferior

The hyoid bone lies _______ to the mandible.

greater horn, lesser horn, and body

Name the 3 parts that form the hyoid bone.

Hyoid bone

This is a movable base for the tongue and a point of attachment for the neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx during swallowing.

skull to pelvis

The vertebral column extends from the _____ to the _______.

lower limbs

The vertebral column transmits weight of truck to ______ ________.

vertebral column

This is a curved and flexible structure that protects the spinal cord.

vertebral column

The ribs and muscles of the neck and back attach to the __________ ________.

33

How many separate bones or vertebrae does a fetus or infant have?

24 (26 in all)

How many vertebrae bones does an adult have? excluding the sacrum and coccyx

sacrum and coccyx

The 9 extra vertebrae in infants fuse together to form the ______ and _______.

increase

As vertebrae go down, the bones _______ in size.

concave

cervical and lumbar curvatures are ______.

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