__________ is a direct tax on the French peasantry.
Bloody French peasant uprisings in the fourteenth century were known as __________.
Prince Vladimir of __________ received delegations from multiple religious groups who wished Russia to adopt their beliefs.
Joan of Arc was known as the "Maid of __________".
Papal power reached its height with the reign of Pope __________.
Ghengis __________ invaded Russia in 1223.
Giovanni Boccaccio wrote __________, his account of reactions to the Black Death.
After Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, __________ became, in Russian eyes, the "third Rome".
The __________ included the steppe region of what is today southern Russia.
__________ teaches that the efficacy of the Church's sacraments does not only lie in their true performance but also depends on the moral character of the clergy who administer them.
__________ means "rebirth" in French and was considered by most scholars to be a time of transition from medieval to modern times.
Martin __________ was considered by some to be Erasmus's theological successor and posted 95 theses against indulgences in 1517.
Cosmo de' __________ was the wealthiest Florentine and a natural statesman.
__________ is the ability to act decisively and heroically.
Julius came to be known as the "__________ pope," because he brought the Renaissance papacy to a peak of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue.
Rudolf __________ is considered the "father of German humanism".
The __________ commanded an enormous empire in Peru.
In the era of exploration that began in the fifteenth century, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the __________ Ocean, while the Spanish explored the Atlantic.
__________ was the daughter of Henry VIII and was considered one of Europe's most exemplary rulers.
Niccolò __________ wrote The Prince in 1513.
__________ were military brokers through which mercenary armies could be obtained.
The __________ is a large landed estate owned by persons originally born in Spain or persons of Spanish descent born in America.
The textbook discusses the guild for __________ as an example of a group that supported the Reformation for a variety of social, cultural, and (self-interested) economic reasons.
In April 1521, Luther refused to recant his beliefs in front of the __________.
Diet of Worms
Anabaptists believed that __________ performed on a consenting adult conformed to Scripture and was more respectful of human freedom.
Pope Leo X initially gave King Henry VIII the title "__________" because of Henry's vocal anti-Protestantism.
Defender of the Faith
The western European family was conjugal, or __________; that is, it consisted of a father and a mother and two to four children who survived into adulthood.
Cervantes's most famous work is __________.
Dramatists working in England at the same time as Shakespeare include Thomas Kyd and Christopher __________.
Sixteenth-century Puritans, known as __________, created an alternative national church of semiautonomous congregations governed by representative elders.
The election of __________ as Holy Roman Emperor sparked an international war.
The Pacification of __________ followed the Spanish Fury and saw seven provinces (modern Netherlands) unify against Spain.
__________, though it had many adherents by the eve of the Thirty Years' War, had not been legally recognized by the Peace of Augsburg.
The Council of __________ revised Church doctrine and condemned dogmatic Genevan Calvinism and Catholicism.
The leader of the Netherlands resistance movement was William of __________.
Sir Francis Drake's __________ of the globe between 1577 and 1580 was one in a series of dramatic demonstrations of English ascendancy on the high seas.
The outbreak of the __________ Years' War in 1618 made the international dimension of the religious conflict clear.
Extreme Puritans, known as __________, wanted every congregation to be autonomous with neither episcopal nor presbyterian control.
By the time John Calvin died in __________ in 1564, the city had become a refuge for Protestants and a training ground for Protestant resistance to the Counter-Reformation.
On St. Bartholomew's Day, Catholics massacred 3,000 __________.
The rising cost of __________ was an important reason European monarchs in the second half of the sixteenth century started needing more money.
In the 1620s, a group of Protestant dissenters, feeling reformation would never go far enough in England, left the country and founded a new colony in __________.
In 1603, __________, the son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, succeeded the childless Elizabeth to the throne of England.
In an attempt to unite the English people behind the war in Holland, and as a sign of good faith to Louis XIV, Charles II issued the __________ in 1672.
Declaration of Indulgence
One of the theoretical underpinnings of Louis XIV's absolutism was the concept of "divine right of kings," articulated most clearly by political theorist Bishop Jacques-Bénigne __________ .
Despite its spectacular political failure in the rest of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the king of __________ led an army to rescue Vienna from a Turkish siege in 1683.
Charles VI tried to ensure the future unity of the disparate Habsburg lands through a legal instrument called the __________.
In a practice known as __________, the Ottomans recruited their elite military forces from among Christian boys in the empire.
Roughly 80 percent of the victims of witch-hunts were __________, most single and aged over 40.
The process that introduced systematic observation of nature, a mathematically rational conception of the world, and significant new theories in astronomy is commonly referred to as "The __________."
Copernicus adopted many elements of the Ptolemaic model, but transferred them to a __________ model that assumed that the Earth moved about the sun in a circle.
Scientific __________ occurs when scientists draw and test hypotheses against empirical observations.
The most famous baroque painter was Michelangelo __________.
Because of the reluctance of universities to rapidly assimilate the new science, its pioneers established what have been termed "institutions of __________" that allowed information and ideas associated with the new science to be gathered, exchanged, and debated.
Emilie du Chatelet helped __________ write a French popularization of Newton's science, because she knew more about math than he did.
The condemnation of __________ by Roman Catholic authorities in 1633 is the single most famous incident of conflict between modern science and religious institutions.
Art historians use the term __________ to denote the style associated with seventeenth-century painting, sculpture, and architecture.
The eighteenth-century movement known as the __________ built upon the knowledge of groups associated with the new science.
People who would sell their ideas, often improbable, to the highest bidder were known as __________.
People involved in the movement for social reform called the __________ were among the few who considered change desirable.
The British nobility consisted of about __________ families.
In France there were about __________ nobles.
In preindustrial Europe, a __________ was a person - either male or female - who was hired, often under a clear contract, to work for the head of the household in exchange for room, board, and wages.
The household mode of organization was known as the __________ economy.
In 1700, approximately half the arable land in England was farmed by the open-field method. By the second half of the 18th century, the rising price of wheat encouraged landlords to consolidate or __________ their lands to increase production.
The single largest group in any city was composed of shopkeepers, wage earners, and __________.
The single most important invention of the Industrial Revolution was the __________ engine, which - slowly, at first - found widespread application in a variety of industries.
The __________ was a separate community in which Jews were required to live.
Jews who __________ to Christianity gained political and social rights.
__________ and guns allowed Europeans to dominate the globe.
The most profitable resource to be exported from the West Indies to Europe was __________.
In response to the __________ Act, American colonists agreed to refuse to import British goods.
The War of the American Revolution effectively concluded in 1781 when the forces of George Washington defeated the army of Lord Cornwallis at __________.
Maria Theresa ruled the __________ Empire.
Besides the Americas, France and Britain also fought for economic superiority of __________.
Because traders and merchants of one nation always wanted to break the monopoly of another, the eighteenth century was the "golden age of __________".
The Treaty of __________ replaced the Bourbons of France on the Spanish throne.
The British monarch during the American Revolution was King __________.
Adam Smith is associated with __________ economic thought and policy.
Ideas that were circulated in print became the basis for __________, the increasingly influential social force that came into existence sometime around the mid-eighteenth century.
__________ embodied a return to figurative and architectural models drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world.
The belief that the God who created rational nature must also be rational, and the religion through which that God is worshiped should be rational is called __________.
Unlike Spinoza, Mendelsohn wished to advocate religious toleration while genuinely sustaining the traditional religious practices and faith of __________.
The __________ were French economic reformers who prized agriculture, and believed the role of government should be to protect private property so owners could use it freely.
In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu most admired the __________ constitution.
Rousseau believed that __________ is more important than its individual members, because individuals are what they are only by virtue of their relationship to the larger community.
The expanding literate public led to an increasingly influential social force called __________ .
Diderot and d'Alembert published the __________, which was an important source of knowledge about eighteenth-century social and economic life.
__________ closely identified God and nature and the spiritual and material worlds.
__________ II, upon succession to the Austrian throne, eliminated most but not all of the reforms of his brother Joseph II.