Art History Exam 1

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vocab words for Art History Images Test I: Antiquity to Middle Ages

megalith

a large prehistoric stone monument

post-and-lintel

a structure consisting of vertical beams (posts) supporting a horizontal beam (lintel)

corbel vault

A vault formed by progressively projecting courses of stone or brick, which eventually meet to form the highest point of the vault.

mastaba

an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof

step pyramid

a pyramid whose sides rise in a series of giant steps

obelisk

a stone pillar having a rectangular cross section tapering towards a pyramidal top

relief

sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the surrounding background

sunken relief

where the outlines of the figures have been carved into the surface of the stone, instead of being formed by cutting away the background

column

(architeture) a tall cylindrical vertical upright and used to support a structure

hieroglyph

a writing system using picture symbols

papyrus

A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.

Amarna Style

Art created during the reign of Akhenaton, which features a more relaxed figure style than in Old and New Kingdom art

cyclopean masonry

A method of stone construction, named after the mythical Cyclopes, using massive, irregular blocks without mortar, characteristic of the Bronze Age fortifications of Tiryns and other Mycenaean sites.

kouros

Greek word for "male youth." An Archaic Greek statue of a standing, nude youth.

kore

an Archaic Greek statue of a standing, draped female

cella

the chief room of a Greek temple, where the statue of the god was located and, frequently, the temple's treasure was kept.

colonnade

a structure composed of a series of arches supported by columns

Doric order

the oldest and simplest of the Greek orders of architecture, defined by fluted columns, smooth capitals, and square abacus

capital

The uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. In classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order.

fluting

the vertical grooving on a column

entablature

The upper section of a classical building, resting on the columns and constituting the architrave, frieze, and cornice

architrave

the horizontal element above the columns; supports frieze

frieze

an architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice

cornice

projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars)

triglyph

a triple projecting, grooved member of a Doric frieze that alternates with metopes

metope

a small relief sculpture on the facade of a Greek temple

stylobate

The uppermost course of the platform of a Greek temple, which supports the columns.

pediment

triangular part above columns in Greek buildings

contrapposto

a graceful arrangement of the body based on tilted shoulders and hips and bent knees/weight shift/one foot tension one foot relaxed

Athena

(Greek mythology) goddess of wisdom and useful arts and prudent warfare

Pheidian style

after the maker of the parthenon. architecture and sculpture style, where figures are aloof, detached, idealism, perfect forms, body w/o emotion. another term for high classical.

Ionic order

the second Greek order of architecture, with columns that had an elaborated base and a capital carved into double scrolls that looked like the horns of a ram (feminine in comparison to Doric)

Corinthian Order

Most ornate (and feminine) of the orders- contains a base, a fluted column shaft, and the capital is elaborate and decorated with leaf carvings

volute

ornament from Ionic capital resembling a rolled scroll

acanthus

An ambigious flower and a style of plant used for the caps of the corinthian columns

mausoleum

monumental tomb; first constructed as a tomb for Mausolos

Old Kingdom Egypt

3100-2200 BCE

Imhotep

Name of the architect who designed the Step Pyramid

Khufu (Cheops)

The Great Pyramid of Giza was built for This pharoah, Egyptian pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid; Khufu is his Egyptian name and Cheops is his Greek name

Khafre (Chefren)

son of Khufu; builder of the second largest pyramid of Giza; builder of the Great Sphinx

Menkaure (Mycerinus)

successor of King Khafre; last pyramid tomb

New Kingdom Egypt

1500-1162 BCE

Minoan Art

Island of Crete

Mycenaean Art

Mainland Greece

Aegean

an arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey

Archaic

600-500 BCE

Classical

480-400 BCE

Polykleitos

High Classical Sculptor; devised mathematical formula for representing the perfect male body; famous work=Doryphoros (bronze statue of young man holding spear)

Ictinus and Callicrates

architects of Parthenon

Pheidias

Considered to be the greatest sculptor in ancient Greece. Pericles asked him to design the sculptures for the Parthenon and the statue of Athena.

Late Classical

(4th Century BCE)

Praxiteles

ancient Greek sculptor (circa 370-330 BC), a sculptor who lived after Phidias who sculpted figures that were more lifelike and natural in form and size.

Hellenistic Art

(3rd - 2nd century BCE) , more realism, more emotion, every day people, Pelopponesian war destroyed images of perfection

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