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The questions who, what, why, when, where, how, and how much were introduced as a way to...

Help us evaluate whether a particular type of drug use is a problem

The use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of probles occurring is...

Abuse

Drugs have played a significant role in human society...

For thousands of years

Based on two different large annual surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use...

Is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970's

One of the most important risk factors for drug use is...

having friends who use marijuana or other substances

According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tibacco, and marijuana?

White

An example of a longitudinal study of drug use would be...

Following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years

The U.S, government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a "hands off" approach to government that has been referred to by the term_______.

Laissez-faire

Those who have received a "personality disorder" diagnosis, such as antisocial personality disorder

Have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder

In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that

longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug

About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?

1.5 million

One concern that led to the initial passage of federal drug-control legislation in 1906 was

Patent Medicines

The Harrison Act of 1914

Required pharmacists and physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs

In 2008, the FDA approved______new drugs

31

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

Established schedules of controlled substances and moved enforcement to the Justice Department

According to current federal law, a fine of up to $10,000 and loss of all federal privileges (including student loans and grants) can result from conviction

for possession of marijuana or any controlled substance

From the 1920's to the 1970's about 1 out of 1000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. Due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, that rate has now

Increased to 5 per 1000

Testing for drug use using sweat, saliva, or hair samples

is now allowed for U.S. federal employees

It is estimated that_____percent of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year

10-15

The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc) within certain limits is called

homeostasis

Drug molecules must be somewhat lipophilic (soluble in oil) in order to

Readily cross the blood-brain barrier

Parkinson's disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to

Dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia

The brain imaging technique described in the book that can study where specific chemicals are binding in living humans is called

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Most drugs have three different kinds of names. Which of them belongs to a specific manufacturer?

Brand name

Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol is classified as a(n)

Depressant

The idea of a safety margin for a particular drug is based on the idea that

Toxic doses will typically be larger than therapeutic doses

The potency of a drug is defined only in terms of

The amount required to produce an effect

If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing the drug, then latter doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of

Drug disposition tolerance

The use of cocaine by members of the general public in Europe and North America was initially in the form of

Drinks, such as coca wine and Coca-Cola

Which famous physician studied cocaine as a treatment for morphine dependence and depression?

Sigmund Freud

What is cocaine still used for medicinally?

It is used as a local anesthetic for nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal surgeries

Cocaethylene

Is formed in the body when cocaine and alcohol are used together

Cocaine use during pregnancy now appears to be associated with

No consistent effects on physical growth, test scores, or language up to age six

Studies of the mechanism of action of the amphetamines have focused mainly on

Release of norepinephrine and dopamine

The effect of amphetamines on weight control

Is real, but small and limited in duration

The "date rape" drug Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)

Is sold as a hypnotic agent (sleeping pill) in many countries other than the U.S.

When benzodiazapines bind to their "receptors" in the brain they,

enhance the inhibitory effects of GABA

The four most widely sold benzodiazepines are all longer-acting drugs sold primarily as

anxiolytics

Animal self-administration experiments and studies of drug choice among humans indicate that

Short-acting barbiturates are more likely to lead to dependence than any of the benzodiazepines

What household product contains nitrous oxide?

Whipped cream dispensers

The modern era of abuse of volatile solvents by young people can be traced to a 1959 newspaper report of

Glue sniffing

The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about

1-5 grams

Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was first used to treat schizophrenia, it is now used primarily to treat

severe depression

Phenothiazenes and neuroleptics were terms used to describe the early forms of

Antipsychotics

Many of the new atypical antipsychotics are known to cause

Significant weight gain and metabolic changes

A recent study of the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs found that

Three-fourths of the patients stopped taking their medication within 18 months

The initial effect of tricyclic antidepressants is to

Inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin

The FDA now requires a printed warning on several selective reuptake inhibitors because they increase the risk of

Suicide in children and adolescents

What is the average lag period for antidepressants to begin to be effective?

2 Weeks

The fastest, and probably the most effective, treatment for severe cases of depression is

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

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