The questions who, what, why, when, where, how, and how much were introduced as a way to...
Help us evaluate whether a particular type of drug use is a problem
The use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of probles occurring is...
Drugs have played a significant role in human society...
For thousands of years
Based on two different large annual surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use...
Is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970's
One of the most important risk factors for drug use is...
having friends who use marijuana or other substances
According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tibacco, and marijuana?
An example of a longitudinal study of drug use would be...
Following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years
The U.S, government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a "hands off" approach to government that has been referred to by the term_______.
Those who have received a "personality disorder" diagnosis, such as antisocial personality disorder
Have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder
In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that
longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug
About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?
One concern that led to the initial passage of federal drug-control legislation in 1906 was
The Harrison Act of 1914
Required pharmacists and physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs
In 2008, the FDA approved______new drugs
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
Established schedules of controlled substances and moved enforcement to the Justice Department
According to current federal law, a fine of up to $10,000 and loss of all federal privileges (including student loans and grants) can result from conviction
for possession of marijuana or any controlled substance
From the 1920's to the 1970's about 1 out of 1000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. Due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, that rate has now
Increased to 5 per 1000
Testing for drug use using sweat, saliva, or hair samples
is now allowed for U.S. federal employees
It is estimated that_____percent of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year
The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc) within certain limits is called
Drug molecules must be somewhat lipophilic (soluble in oil) in order to
Readily cross the blood-brain barrier
Parkinson's disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to
Dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia
The brain imaging technique described in the book that can study where specific chemicals are binding in living humans is called
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Most drugs have three different kinds of names. Which of them belongs to a specific manufacturer?
Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol is classified as a(n)
The idea of a safety margin for a particular drug is based on the idea that
Toxic doses will typically be larger than therapeutic doses
The potency of a drug is defined only in terms of
The amount required to produce an effect
If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing the drug, then latter doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of
Drug disposition tolerance
The use of cocaine by members of the general public in Europe and North America was initially in the form of
Drinks, such as coca wine and Coca-Cola
Which famous physician studied cocaine as a treatment for morphine dependence and depression?
What is cocaine still used for medicinally?
It is used as a local anesthetic for nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal surgeries
Is formed in the body when cocaine and alcohol are used together
Cocaine use during pregnancy now appears to be associated with
No consistent effects on physical growth, test scores, or language up to age six
Studies of the mechanism of action of the amphetamines have focused mainly on
Release of norepinephrine and dopamine
The effect of amphetamines on weight control
Is real, but small and limited in duration
The "date rape" drug Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)
Is sold as a hypnotic agent (sleeping pill) in many countries other than the U.S.
When benzodiazapines bind to their "receptors" in the brain they,
enhance the inhibitory effects of GABA
The four most widely sold benzodiazepines are all longer-acting drugs sold primarily as
Animal self-administration experiments and studies of drug choice among humans indicate that
Short-acting barbiturates are more likely to lead to dependence than any of the benzodiazepines
What household product contains nitrous oxide?
Whipped cream dispensers
The modern era of abuse of volatile solvents by young people can be traced to a 1959 newspaper report of
The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was first used to treat schizophrenia, it is now used primarily to treat
Phenothiazenes and neuroleptics were terms used to describe the early forms of
Many of the new atypical antipsychotics are known to cause
Significant weight gain and metabolic changes
A recent study of the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs found that
Three-fourths of the patients stopped taking their medication within 18 months
The initial effect of tricyclic antidepressants is to
Inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
The FDA now requires a printed warning on several selective reuptake inhibitors because they increase the risk of
Suicide in children and adolescents
What is the average lag period for antidepressants to begin to be effective?
The fastest, and probably the most effective, treatment for severe cases of depression is
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)