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Second Continental Congress

after the battle of Lexington and Concord, delegates from every colony met in Philadelphia (except Georgia), and all agreed upon the war, but some wanted reconciliation with Britain, while others wanted independence.

Richard Henry Lee

delegate of Virginia was a member of a group led by Samuel and John Adams, who favored independence as a reason for war with Britain.

John Dickinson

delegate of Pennsylvania, who led a group that favored quick reconciliation with Great Britain as opposed to independence.

Hessians

German mercenaries that were hated among colonists, and were part of the group that Great Britain recruited to fight against the Americans.

Thomas Paine and Common Sense

an English man who moved to America and wrote a pamphlet that explained why Americans should not be angry at parliament, after all the problem was really in the English constitution, which had apparently caused harm to its own people and could not govern another area. The pamphlet was very popular in the colonies were 100, 000 copies were sold in a few months, and helped create support for the idea of American independence

Declaration of Independence

a formal draft of a resolution created by the continental congress, which broke all ties with the independent states of America and the British government and crown, created the idea in America that the colonies were now "states".

Articles of Confederation

a plan for union, adopted by the continental congress that confirmed the existing weak, decentralized system in America.

Thomas Jefferson

a 33 year old Virginian, who wrote most of the Declaration, with help from John Adams and Ben Franklin, he borrowed ideas from local "declarations" made within colonies.

John Locke

his familiar theory that governments were formed to protect what Jefferson called, "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness", was used in the first part of the Declaration of Independence.

Continental Currency

when Congress needed money for financing the war, they turned to the idea of printing more paper money, which was done by printing presses in many states, but the high inflation caused the money to be worthless.

George Washington

when Congress recognized the need for a centralized military in America, they chose Washington as the single commander and chief, because of his considerable military experience, being an advocate of independence, and he was admired and trusted by all Patriots.

Marquis de Lafayette

one of the foreign military experts, from France, he have money and helped Washington build and train a force that would prevail against the strongest military in the world.

Baron von Steuben

another one of the foreign military experts that helped train Washington's troops, well, before fighting Great Britain.

Bunker/ Breeds Hill

on June 17, 1775, a battle broke out, when American forces besieged the British on Breed's Hill, they fought for a long time, and there were casualties for both the British and Patriots. Finally, the British decided to leave Boston for a place that would be easier to tactically defend, so they left for Halifax, Nova Scotia.( American loss due to lack of ammo)

Benedict Arnold

when Americans began an invasion of Canada, he and Richard Montgomery unsuccessfully threatened Quebec, in a year long battle, in which he was wounded.

William Howe

during the summer of 1776, he led hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers to New York, and offered Congress the choice between surrender with royal pardon and a battle against the odds, and despite having far fewer troops, the Americans rejected the offer.

John Burgoyne

commander of the British northern force, began a two pronged attack to the south along both the Mohawk and the upper Hudson, but his part of the attack was forgotten by Howe, who moved into Philadelphia and conquered it quickly, forcing rebels and Congress out. But, later on his troops moved up the Hudson valley and easily seized Fort Ticonderoga.

Valley Forge

after launching an unsuccessful Patriot attack against the British on October 4 at Germantown (just outside Philadelphia), Washington went into winter quarters at Valley Forge.

Horatio Gates

when the British force in New York, under Burgoyne, was running low on supplies and all help was cut off, horible conditions, this Patriot General, surrounded the British force, and forced Burgoyne to surrender at Saratoga, in October 1777

Saratoga

(turning pt) the battle in which Patriots had victory on October 17, 1777, after fighting and forcing weakened, British troops under Burgoyne to surrender when they had already lost reinforcements, and supplies, and had previously fought several costly engagements

Joseph and Mary Brant

Mohawk Indians (brother and sister), that had allied themselves with the British, causing a division in the already weakened Iroquois Confederacy, when three of the nations followed them in support of the British.

George Rogers Clark

led a patriot expedition over the Appalachian Mountains and captured settlements in the Illinois country from the British and their Indian allies.

Thomas Sumter, Andrew Picken, Francis Marion

even when the British were able to win conventional battles, they were often harassed by these Patriot guerillas in the South

Lord Cornwallis

British commander in the South, penetrated Camden, South Carolina, met and crushed a Patriot force under Horatio Gates on August 16, 1780.

Nathanael Greene

one of the most able Patriot commanders, replaced Gates in he South, (fighting Quaker, attacked then backed off, drew in opponents)

Camden

Battle that the Patriots lost to the British in South Carolina, causing their commander to be replaced.

Cowpens

when Greene separated British troops into multiple contingents, one of them was ambushed, on January 17,1781, but when reinforcements arrived the Patriots were able to defeat the British at Guilford Court House, North Carolina.

Yorktown

when Cornwallis was forced to take a defensive position in Yorktown, American and French forces descended from different directions in a joint operational tactic, and caught Cornwallis between land and sea, where he surrendered his whole army of more than 7, 000 on October 17, 1781.

John Jay, Ben Franklin, John Adams

three American diplomats arrived in France along with British emissaries, and through negotians with France, who wished to help their allies Spain receive Gibraltar from the British, and the British who had just faced defeat and no longer wished to continue the war, the treaty of Paris was derived.

Treaty of Paris of 1783

the treaty that was derived by the French, British emissaries, and American diplomats, favorable to the U.S., it gave the colonists clear cut independence and a large cession of territory stretching from the southern boundary of Canada, to the Northern boundary of Florida, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi.

Chief Dragging Canoe

leader of the Cherokee Indians, launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in the summer of 1776. Through battle and treaty, the Cherokee were forced to give up most of their land to the Americans.

Remember the Ladies

in a letter written by Abigail Adams to John Adams in 1776, she wrote asking for him to make laws that would offer rights for women, not only men, protecting them against abusive and tyrannical men.

Republicanism

to the Americans, this meant having a political system in which all power came from the people, rather than from some supreme authority, and that government success depended on its citizenry.

Statue of Religious liberty

enacted in 1786 in Virginia, written by Thomas Jefferson, which called fro complete separation of church and state.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

abandoned the ten districts established in 1784, and created a single Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio; the territory could be divided subsequently between three and five territories, and specified a 60,000 minimum population, religious freedom, prohibition of slavery, and right to trial by jury.

Little Turtle

leader of the Miami Indians, defeated United States forces in two major battles; in the second of those battles, on November 4, 1791, 630 white Americans died in fighting at the Wabash River. They wanted no treaty or negotiations, only for the Americans to leave the Ohio valley.

Anthony Wayne/ Battle of Fallen Timbers

negotiations did not continue with the Miami Indians until after General Anthony Wayne led 4,000 soldiers into the Ohio Valley in 1794 and defeated the Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Treaty of Greenville

the treaty signed by the Miami, ceding substantial new lands to the United States in exchange for a formal acknowledgement of their claim to the territory they had managed to retain. This was the first time the sovereignty of Indian nations was recognized by the new federal government

Robert Morris

served as the Confederation's treasury for many years.(financed the revolution)

Alexander Hamilton

the young protégé of Morris called for a continental impost, or a 5 percent duty used to fund debt in the government.

Continental impost

the idea of applying a 5 percent duty to fund the debt in America, but many were against giving Morris this much financial power, and Congress failed to approve it in both 1781 and 1783.

Daniel Shays and Job Shattuck and Shay's Rebellion

under former captains of the Continental army, New England farmers staged rebellion in order to decrease taxation and to keep courts from sitting and sheriffs from selling confiscated property, and they were called rebels and traders by members of the legislature in Boston. When Shaysites tried to seize weapons from an arsenal in Springfield, a force of state militiamen met them and the group was dispersed, while Shay and his lieutenants were sentenced to death and later pardoned, and some tax relief was offered and a postponement of debt payments. (demonstrated the need for stronger central government)

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