ESC1000L Final Lab Exam

270 terms by thumpaholden

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melting

Substance solid transforms to liquid. A cooling process

cooling process

Is melting a heating or cooling process?

freezing

liquid transforms to solid. A heating process.

heating process

Is freezing a heating or cooling process?

evaporation

Liquid transforms to vapour. A cooling process

condensation

Vapour transforms to liquid. A heating process.

sublimation

A solid transforms to a gas, skipping the liquid phase. A cooling process.

deposition

A gas transforms to a solid. A heating process.

higher

When temperature is higher, the amount of water vapor air can hold is _______

lower

When temperature is lower, the amount of water vapor air can hold is _______.

unsaturated

When a given parcel of air is holding less water than it can actually hold it is___________.

saturated

When a given parcel of air is holding all the water vapor it can hold, it is _________.

mixing ratio

specific humidity

specific humidity

Ratio of the amount of water vapour in air by weight, compared to the mass of air it is in. Not affected by temperature.

absolute humidity

Ratio of the amount of water vapour in air by volume, compared to the volume of air it is in. Not affected by temperature.

relative humidity

Ratio of the amount of water vapour in air compared to the amount needed to saturate the air at the same temperature. Given as a percentage. Is strongly affected by temperature.

relative humidity

how much water the air is holding relative to the amount is can potentially hold, its capacity. Is strongly affected by temperature.

drops

What happens to relative humidity when temperature increases?

decreases

What happens to the capacity of air to hold water vapour when temperature decreases?

increases

What happens to relative humidity when the water vapour content of the air stays the same, but the temperature drops?

dew point

The temperature that a parcel of unsaturated air would have to fall to, in order to become saturated. Given as a temperature.

1 June to 30 November

When is the hurricane season?

tropical cyclone

1. low pressure system 2. a rotating air movement due to coriolis effect 3. winds of > 74 mph (Nthern Hem: counter clockwise) Also called hurricane, typhoon.

tropical depression

tropical cyclone with winds < 38 mph

tropical storm

tropical cyclone with winds 38 to 74 mph

5-20 degrees

Global zone where tropical storms form, but not south Atlantic or eastern Pacific.

doldrums

Why tropical storms can't cross the equator.

Saffir-Simpson

Scale used to rank tropical storms, based on wind speed.

hurricane

Storm that causes wind damage, inland flooding and storm surge.

wind damage

Damage caused by hurricanes: 1. _____, 2. storm surge, 3. inland flooding

storm surge

Damage caused by hurricanes: 1. wind damage, 2. _____, 3. inland flooding

inland flooding

Damage caused by hurricanes: 1. wind damage, 2. storm surge, 3. _____

right

direction winds are deflected due to coriolis effect in the northern hemisphere

left

direction winds are deflected due to coriolis effect in the southern hemisphere.

stronger

As wind speed increases, the deflection of wind due to coriolis effect is______.

equator

Zone of the earth where deflection of wind due to the coriolis effect is weakest.

friction

Factor that affects wind as it moves over different surfaces.

slows

Friction _____ wind speed over forested areas compared with open ocean.

low

Which air pressure can end up forming cyclones?

convergence

When winds come together and are forced to go up, spinning counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere

cyclone

weather feature formed by low pressure and air converging and rising, spinning counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere.

high

_____air pressure can end up forming anticyclones

divergence

When air flows down and there is an outflow of air, moving apart in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere.

anticyclone

weather feature formed by high pressure and air dropping and diverging and spinning clockwise in the northern hemisphere.

global circulation

Doldrums at the equator, Horse Latitudes at 30 degrees,

equatorial low

Global zone of moist warm air rising at the equator, also called the Doldrums.

mineral

A naturally occurring, inorganic solid (at normal earth temperatures) with a repeating crystalline structure and definite chemical composition.

CaCO3

What is the chemical formula of the mineral that is an exception to the standard definition of a mineral because it is made by organisms?

calcium carbonate

chemical name of calcite

calcite

The mineral name of CaCO3

rock

Any naturally occurring solid mass composed of one or more minerals

feldspars

The most common group of silicates in the earth's surface

quartz

The second most common silicate in the earth's surface

non-silicates

Term for rocks that do not contain silicon and oxygen.

luster

Term for the quality or appearance of light reflected from the surface of a rock.

metallic and non metallic

The two major categories of luster used in rock identification.

vitreous

Term for the type of luster that is shiny like glass or colored glass.

light and dark

The two major categories of color used in rock identification.

cleavage

Term for the shape of the broken crystals in a rock.

malleability

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can be permanently deformed

refraction

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can reflect light internally in a way that produces two images.

conchoidal fracture

Term for the cleavage that broken glass has.

streak

The color of a mineral in powdered form

2.5

Hardness score of fingernail on Moh's hardness scale

3.5

Hardness score of a penny on Moh's hardness scale

5.5

Hardness score of glass on Moh's hardness scale

6.5

Hardness score of a streak plate on Moh's harness scale.

specific gravity

How heavy a sample is compared to the mass of an equal volume of water

texture and composition

Characteristics used to classify igneous rocks.

vesicles

Term for the bubbles in igneous rocks produced by dissolved gases.

coarse grained

Texture of intrusive rocks with visible crystals.

porphyritic

Term for the texture of igneous rocks with visible crystals in a fine-grained matrix.

glassy

Term for the texture of rocks with no crystals, but may have vesicles.

dark

Color of silicates that are relatively low in silica

light

Color of silicates that are relatively high in silica.

basaltic or mafic

Terms for igneous rocks that are high in dark silicates (45-85%)

granitic or felsic

Terms for igneous rocks that are low in dark silicates (0-25%)

andesitic or intermediate

Terms for igneous rocks that have moderate amounts of dark silicates (25-45%)

ultramafic

Term for igneous rocks that are very high in dark silicates (>85%)

basalt

A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with fine grained texture.

gabbro

A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with coarse-grained texture.

diorite

A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.

andesite

A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.

granite

A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.

rhyolite

A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.

sedimentary

Category of rock that forms from the lithification of sediments or dissolved substances from preexisting rocks.

chemical and detrital

Two main categories of sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)

particle or grain size

Characteristics used to classify detrital sedimentary rocks.

grain size

Term for the average size of the particles that make up a sedimentary rock.

heat and pressure

Two processes that form metamorphic rocks (in alphabetical order).

around magma bodies and mountain formations

Two places where metamorphic rocks form.

texture, grain size and composition

Three characteristics used to classify metamorphic rocks.

foliated

Term to describe metamorphic rocks that have realigned crystals, which give the rock a layered or banded appearance.

non-foliated

Term to describe metamorphic rocks with crystals that do NOT form layers or bands, usually where a rock is formed of a single mineral. e.g.marble

slate

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, very fine texture, parent rock is shale

phyllite

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, fine grained texture, looks like shiny, often wavy, parent rock is slate.

schist

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, looks scaly or flaky, parent rock is phyllite.

gneiss

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, has light and dark bands, wide range of parent rocks.

marble

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, composed of calcite.

marble

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rock is limestone or chalk

quartzite

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, and medium to coarse-grained, composed of quartz

quartzite

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rockis sandstone

anthracite

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rock is coal.

conglomerate

A rock: sedimentary, rounded coarse-grained texture.

breccia

A rock: sedimentary, angular coarse-grained texture.

sandstone

A rock: sedimentary, medium-grained texture.

siltstone

A rock: sedimentary, fine-grained texture.

shale

A rock: sedimentary, very fine-grained texture.

crystalline limestone and travertine

A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of calcite with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.

coquina

A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with visible and loosely cemented shells and shell fragments.

fossiliferous limestone

A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with various size shells cemented with calcite cement.

chalk

A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with microscopic shells and clay.

chert and flint

A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of quartz with very fine crystalline texture.

rock gypsum

A rock: sedimentary, composed of gypsum with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.

rock salt

A rock: sedimentary, composed of halite with a find to coarse crystalline structure.

CaSO4

Chemical formula for gypsum.

CaCO3

Chemical formula for calcite.

SiO2

Chemical formula for quartz.

NaCl

Chemical formula for halite.

bituminous coal

A rock: sedimentary, composed of compressed and lithified plant matter.

texture, grain size and composition

Three characteristics used to classify metamorphic rocks.

cementation and compression

Two processes that form sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)

chemical and detrital

Two main categories of sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)

east-west

In the township and range location system, direction in which the range number advances.

north-south

In the township and range location system, directions in which the township number advances.

north east

From which corner of the map does the section numbering start in the township and range location system?

640

How many acres in one square mile?

4, NE, NW, SE, SW

Into how many parts is a section broken up, in the town and range location system, and what are their labels (alphabetical order)?

meandering channel

The stream that bends and turns, with erosional and depositional features

point bar

Depositional feature on the inside of a meander's curve

cut bank

Erosional feature on the outside of a meander's curve

oxbow lake

Cut off section of a meander

floodplain

Flat land created by a meandering stream

levee

Higher bank of land running parallel beside a stream

surface wave and body wave

Two basic kinds of waves produced by earthquakes.

primary and secondary waves

Two types of body waves produced by earthquakes

body

Seismic wave that travels through the earth

primary

Seismic body waves that can travel through solids and liquids

secondary

Seismic body waves that can travel only through solids

primary

Type of seismic body wave that is a compression wave

secondary

Type of seismic body wave that is a shear wave

primary

Type of seismic body wave that travels fast (twice as fast as the other type of body wave)

S waves don't go through liquids

Six reasons we know the composition and consistency of the core: 1) speed of seismic waves through dense material; 2) bending of seismic waves through material of different composition; 3)_______; 4) meteorite composition; 5) earth's magnetic field; 6) calculations based on size, pressure and specific gravity.

secondary

Type of seismic body wave that travels slowly.

vibrations

Damage due to earthquakes is due to:_____, liquefaction, tsunamis

liquefaction

Damage due to earthquakes is due to: vibrations, _____, tsunamis

tsunamis

Damage due to earthquakes is due to: vibrations, liquefaction, _____

core

Layer of the earth consisting of iron and nickel

mantle

Layer of the earth consisting of rigid, to plastic to molten silicate rock

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