Battle of Quebec
The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States). It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de Lévis over the British army under General Murray. However, Lévis could not retake Quebec
English East India Company
in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I with the intention of favoring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created company a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858 following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.agricultural revolution the period from the mid-seventeenth century on in Europe during which great agricultural progress was made and the fallow was gradually eliminated.
Atlantic slave trade
forced migration of millions of Africans to work in servitude during the eighteenth century. By the peak decade of the 1780s, shipments of black men and women averaged about 80,000 per year.
the open meadows maintained by villages for public use.
domestic industry, a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers and hand tools that necessarily preceded the emergence of large-scale factory industry.
people of Spanish blood born in America.
the system by which farmers would rotate the types of crops grown in each field as to not deplete the soil of its natural resources.
a system which allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers/slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money; it is a form of serfdom.
based on the writings of Adam Smith, it is the belief in free trade and competition. Smith argued that the invisible hand of free competition would benefit all individuals, rich and poor.
the idea to enclose individual share of the pastures as a way of farming more effectively.
the foods eaten by a desperate population chestnuts, bark, dandelions and grass in attempts to escape starvation.
system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state.
the offspring of Spanish men and Indian women.
the result of the English desire to increase both military power and private wealth, required that goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships with British crews or on ships of the country producing the article etc.
a system of village farming developed by peasants where the land was divided into several large fields which were in turn cut into strips. There were no divided fences or hedges and it was farmed as a community.
the transformation of large number of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners.
term used to describe the 18th century rural industry.
open field system
system of farming that divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips-fields open and not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges-large field as community-same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting
rotating crops in a cycle so that the nutrients in the soil were not exhausted
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
The process of taking over and fencing off public lands so that animals can graze
Viscount Charles Townsend
proposed the idea of crop rotation
Invented the seed drill
cottage industry/domestic industry
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment; materials were provided by manufacturers
the system in which the merchant capitalist gave raw materials to cottage workers who processed the materials for them for a share of the the profit
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
In the early eighteenth century, Kay invented the flying shuttle, which enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand.
required all imports to be carried in English ships or ships registered to the country from which cargo originated (hurt the Netherlands)
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763) Solved what the War of Austrian Succession had not. Prussia and Great Britain fought off France, Austria, and Russia- involved all of the major European powers of the period; Britain beacme a superpower, and France lost dominance
French and Indian War
this struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of the North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War
French successor in Spain following the War of Spanish Succession and the Treaty of Utrecht. His main objectives was to use French administrative skills to revive the trade monopoly, improve domestic economy, and reassert Spain's dominance as a European power. Phillip V established the viceroyalty of New Granada to subdue colonial smuggling.