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The words for Ms. Stein's Global History class.

Vedas

Aryan collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions, and religious teachings

Brahmins

Priests

Brahman

A single spiritual power that existed beyond the g-ds and resided in all things

Atman

The essential self that every person has

Moksha

Ultimate goal of existence in Hinduism; union with Brahman

Nirvana

Ultimate goal of existence in Buddhism; union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth

Castes

Social groups into which people are born and which can rarely be changed

Karma

All the actions in a person's life that affect his or her fate in the next life

Untouchables

Those at the bottom of the caste structure who are considered impure

Siddhartha Gautama

Founder of Buddhism who meditated under a tree and believed he understood the cause of and cure for suffering and sorrow

Silt

Fertile black mud

Cataracts

River rapids and waterfalls

Nile River Delta

Marshy triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of the river

Pharaoh

Ruler of ancient Egypt and son of God

Hatshepsut

First female ruler in history

Hieroglyphics

System in which symbols or pictures represent objects, concepts, or sounds

Mummification

Preservation of dead bodies by embalming and wrapping in cloth as preparation for the afterlife

Bureaucracy

System of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority

Epic of Gilgamesh

Mesopotamian narrative poem that describes a flood that destroys the world

Hierarchy

System of ranking groups in society

Fertile Crescent

Area of land in between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Ur

Sumerian urban center with an irrigation system and many artisans

Barter

Economy based on exchange of goods and services

Ziggurat

Terraced, pyramid-shaped monument used for religious purposes

Cuneiform

Wedge-shaped marks in wet clay tablets

Hammurabi's Code

Uniform code of laws with punishments based on social class and gender

Royal Road

Road that stretched across the Persian Empire; used for communication and trade

Zoroastrianism

Persian religion based on the constant struggle between good and evil

Arable

Suitable for growing crops

Codify

To set into writing

Culture

Way of life of a group of people

Cultural diffusion

The process of one nation's culture spreading to and being adopted by another culture

Ethnocentrism

Belief that a culture is superior to another culture

Urbanization

Growth and development of cities

Neolithic Age

New Stone Age

Çatalhüyük

Agricultural village in south-central Turkey known for obsidian products

Hominid

Humans and other creatures that walk upright

Artisans

Skilled workers who made goods by hand

City-State

Political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands and villages

Empire

Group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

Chandragupta Maurya

Founder of the Maurya Empire

Dowry

Bride's payment to the groom upon marriage

Asoka

Mauryan emperor who conquered territory and later became a Buddhist missionary

Gupta Empire

Empire under which India experienced a golden age

Huang He

River around which early Chinese civilization developed

Loess

Fertile yellow soil of the Huang River

Dynastic cycle

Rise and fall of dynasties

Feudalism

System of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service to the ruler

Mandate of Heaven

Divine right to rule

Zhou Dynasty

Chinese dynasty that promoted the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to justify its conquest of the previous dynasty

Confucianism

Philosophy concerned with social order and good government

Filial piety

Respect for one's parents

Laozi

Author of the Dao De Jing, which influenced ideas of Daoism

Daoism

Philosophy concerned with living in harmony with nature

Oracle bones

Animal bones on which Shang priests wrote questions to spirits; cracks were interpreted for meaning

Calligraphy

Art form of Chinese writing

Shi Huangdi

China's "First Emperor" who used strict laws and harsh punishments as a basis for his government

Wudi

Emperor of China under the Han dynasty who chose Confucian officials to work for the government and followed a policy of expansionism

Silk Road

Trade network that linked China to the Middle East

Legalism

Method of keeping order in which strict laws and harsh punishments keep people from rebelling

Polis

Greek word for city-state

Sparta

Greek city-state with an emphasis on military discipline

Athens

Greek city-state known for its direct democracy

Direct democracy

System of government in which citizens participate in daily political affairs rather than relying on representatives

Pericles

Leader during the Golden Age of Athens who promoted democracy

Persian Wars

Series of wars between the Greeks and the Persians over land

Peloponnesian War

War that led to the end of Athenian dominance of the Greek world

Homer

Ancient Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey

Trojan War

Conflict between Mycenae and Troy over Helen, the wife of a Greek king

Mycenaeans

Sea traders who absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian customs and passed them to the Greeks

Socrates

Athenian stonemason and philosopher who believed in learning through questions and answers

Plato

Student of Socrates who emphasized reason, set up a school called the Academy, and wrote The Republic

Aristotle

Student of Plato who favored rule by a single strong and virtuous leader and aimed for a "golden mean"

Alexander the Great

Conquered and ruled a vast empire in which different peoples cooperated and learned from one another throughout the Hellenistic Age

Heliocentric

Sun-centered theory of the solar system

Parthenon

Temple in Athens dedicated to Athena

Idealism

Greek artistic and architectural style that reflected beauty, balance, and harmony

Alexandria

The capital of the Hellenistic world that included the Museum, a market center, lighthouse, and library

Hippocrates

Greek physician who studied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures

Herodotus

Known as the "Father of History"; believed in noting bias and conflicting accounts in sources

Mesoamerica

Cultural region made up of Mexico and Central America

Olmecs

Earliest American civilization; emerged in the tropical forests along the Gulf Coast of Mexico

Stela

Tall, carved monuments made of stone that the Maya used to commemorate important events and figures

Chinampas

Aztec farming method of artificial islands made of mud piled atop reed mats that were anchored to the lake-bed with willow trees

Quipu

Incan record-keeping using colored strings that were knotted in different ways to represent various numbers

Ayllu

Incan village led by local leaders who answered to the emperor

Mesa Verde

Anasazi cliff dwelling of more than 200 rooms in present-day Colorado

Potlatch

Ceremony in which a person of high rank and wealth distributes lavish gifts to a large number of guests

Iroquois League

Alliance of Iroquois nations to keep peace and organize defense against attacks

Earthworks

Large mounds made of earth in various designs and used for various purposes

Charlemagne

Conquered an empire reaching France, Germany, and Italy; became Emperor of the Romans

Feudal contract

Exchange of pledges between lords and vassals to establish the feudal system

Vassal

Lesser lords who pledged military service and loyalty to greater lords in exchange for land

Chivalry

Code of conduct among knights requiring bravery, loyalty, honesty, and protection of the weak and women

Manor

A lord's estate that was self-sufficient

Serf

Peasant who was bound to the lord's manor

Sacraments

Sacred rites of the Church that Christians believed would lead them to salvation

Benedictine Rule

Benedict's specifications for the behavior of monks and nuns; emphasized obedience, chastity, and poverty

Papal supremacy

The pope's claim to authority of all secular rulers

Excommunication

Exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for disobeying Church law

charter

Written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town

Capital

Money for investment

Partnership

A group of merchants who joined together to finance a large-scale venture that would have been too costly for individual traders

Tenant farmer

Someone who would pay rent to a lord to farm part of the lord's land

Middle class

A group of people, including merchants, traders, and artisans, whose rank was between nobles and peasants

Guild

An association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to uphold standards of their trade and to protect their economic interests

Apprentice

Young person learning a trade from a master; often paid in room and board

Journeyman

Salaried worker employed by a guild master

Guild master

A full member of a guild who owned his own shop as a craftsman and employed journeymen and apprentices to teach them the trade

Canterbury Tales

Geoffrey Chaucer's series of poems that depicts life in medieval English society; characters are on a pilgrimage to Canterbury and come from a variety of perspectives and backgrounds

William the Conqueror

Duke of Normandy who defeated Harold and became King of England in 1066

Common law

A legal system based on custom and court rulings

King John

King of England who clashed with nobles and the Church and who signed the Magna Carta in 1215

Magna Carta

Document signed in 1215 by King John that asserted that nobles had certain rights and that the monarch must obey the laws

Habeas corpus

Principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a crime

Parliament

England's legislature that is divided into the House of Lords and House of Commons

Louis IX

Deeply religious King of France who persecuted heretics and Jews led two Crusades against the Muslims

Holy Roman Empire

Empire of west-central Europe from 962 to 1806; comprises present-day Germany and surrounding lands

Lay investiture

Church practice under which a lay person presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office

Concordat of Worms

Treaty signed in 1122 that declared that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority, and the emperor retained the right to invest them with fiefs

Estates General

Legislative body in France with representative from all three estates of French society: clergy, nobles, and townspeople

Crusades

A series of holy wars between the Christians and Muslims over lands in the Middle East

Pope Urban II

Pope who, in 1095, called bishops and nobles to fight the Crusades against the Muslims to recapture the Holy Land

Holy Land

Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believed Jesus lived and preached; also holy for Jews and Muslims

Reconquista

Christian campaign to drive the Muslims from the Iberian peninsula

Ferdinand and Isabella

Powerful Spanish monarchs under whom the Iberian peninsula came under Spanish control; also ended religious tolerance and supported the Inquisition

Inquisition

A Church court set up in Spain to try people accused of heresy, specifically Jews and Muslims

Pope Innocent III

Became pope in 1198 and claimed supremacy over all other rulers; launched a brutal crusade against the Albigensians in southern France

Jerusalem

Present-day capital of Israel; holy city for Christians, Jews, and Muslims

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who wrote about his journey through China; the journey has not been confirmed by historians and scholars

Constantinople

Capital of the eastern Roman empire, Byzantine empire, and Ottoman empire; now known as Istanbul

Justinian's Code

Collection of Roman laws organized by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later serving as a model for the Catholic Church and medieval monarchs

Theodora

Empress who advised Justinian, served as his co-ruler, and pursued her own policies

Icon

Holy images; disputes contributed to the split between eastern and western Christianity

Great Schism

1054 split between the Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church

Steppe

Open, treeless grassland that makes up Russia's southern geography

Cyrillic

Alphabet created by Cyril, a Greek monk, to adapt the Greek alphabet to translate the Bible into the Slavic tongue; written script that is still used today in Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, and Bulgaria

Golden Horde

Mongol armies that invaded Europe in 1237 and ruled Russia for over two centuries

Ivan the Great

Absolute ruler who conquered vast amounts of land and tried to limit the power of the boyars

Ivan the Terrible

First Russian ruler officially crowned tsar; limited privileges of boyars, tied serfs to land, organized a secret police, slaughtered people suspected of disloyalty

Ethnic group

Group of people who share the same language and cultural heritage

Golden Bull of 1222

Charter that nobles forced the Hungarian king to sign that limited royal power

Mecca

Pilgrimage center located on several trade routes and birthplace of Muhammad

Muhammad

Prophet who devoted his life to spreading Islam

Kaaba

Shrine within the Great Mosque in Mecca towards which Muslims turn when they pray

Quran

Sacred text of Islam

Mosque

Muslim place of worship

Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the Five Pillars of Islam

Jihad

Personal duty of Muslims to overcome immorality within themselves

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