is an image (natural or fabricated) used in ritual to fetch
vision (because of our visual dominance)
- plus all other sensory systems
mundane level (to entertain)
- spiritual level (engender high level of interaction with environments, including audience)
used to peak performances under any conditions (including mental obstacles/barriers)
general term used to define Hawai'i's traditional dance.
only requires the hula practitioner & an audience
1 the environment in which the hula is executed
2 the hula practitioner (inclusive of teachers, musicians and dancers)
3 an audience (human or otherwise).
Imagining and picturing events that have yet to occur.
Recalling memory information and shaping those memories into meaningful images.
First person view
You see only what you would see if you actually did the skill.
Emphasizes the kinesthetic or feel of the movement.
Third person view
As if you are watching yourself on video.
Little emphasis on kinesthetics
Uses of Imagery
Control emotional responses
Acquire and practice sport skills
Acquire and practice strategy
Cope with pain and injury
It can enhance a variety of skills to improve performance and can facilitate the learning of new techniques and strategies
Involve as many senses as possible and recreate or create the emotional feelings associated with the task or skill you're trying to execute
Another key to successful imagery is learning to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to.
Whether a person uses an internal or an external image appears to be less important then choosing a comfortable style
Physical needs like hunger, thirst, and sleep
1-Extrinsic: Irrelevant motives from the outside
2-Intrinsic: Motives for their own sake
-through rewards such as points, candies, complements, money, test scores, or grades
-rewards are external administrated; they may inhibit learning in the long run.
-Problem: rewards are addictive.
-doing something for the sake of doing it without thought of rewards such as praise, grades, candy, money
-greater benefits in the long run
-people who are intrinsically motivated work on tasks because they find them enjoyable.
Do extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation?
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Suggests that events affect motivation through the individuals perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information, How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases
What helps maintain high levels of motivation for elite athletes?
Positive feedback (about personal competence) and the athlete must feel that they are responsible for starting the training (and performance) behaviors which have led to their success.
Should athletes be encouraged to set performance-oriented goals or outcome-oriented goals?
Performance oriented goals
How can you increase intrinsic motivation?
-Provide successful experiences ("I won!")
-Vary the content and sequence of practice ("It's fun!)
-Involve the ("I chose that")
-Set realistic goals ("I can work up to that")
What is the definition of sport psychology?
The scientific study of the psyche in sports scenarios to help predict behavior.
["the scientific study of people and their behaviors in sport & exercise activities and the practical application of that knowledge."]
What are the two major objectives of sports psychology?
1- try and understand how psychological factors affects a person's motor performance
2- try and understand how participating in physical activity affects a person's psychological development
Clinical sport psychologist
psychology, abnormal behavior
Treat those athletes and exercisers who have severe emotional disorders
Educational sport psychologist
have background in physical education and extensive training in psychology but not licensed for clinical work
What's the advantage of doing experiments instead of just simple studies?
Experiments can determine a possible causal relationship.
What are the main approaches in sports psychology?
Psychophysiological, social-psychological, and cognitive-behavioral [body, social, and mental]
What "hats" does a sports psychologist wear?
1. Research role
2. Teaching role
3. Consulting role
What is the example given in class for id, superego, and ego?
Do I sleep in for class? My natural sleepy instinct says yes, but my moral conscience tells me its not good, so my ego has to make the choice...
What are the approaches to personality?
Trait approach, situation approach, and the interactional approach.
How is personality measured?
By traits and states, and specific situations.
The direction and intensity of effort.
What are some guidelines for building motivation?
a) situations and traits motivate people
(b) people have multiple motives for involvement
(c) change the environment to enhance motivation
(d) leaders influence motivation
(d) use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives
A disposition to try and be satisfied when comparing yourself to a certain standard in front of other people.
["Disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others."]
Need Achievement Theory
Personal and Situational factors are important predictors of behavior. (interactional view)
What are the personality factors in the need-achievement theory?
What are the situational factors in the need-achievement theory?
1-Probability of success
2-incentive value of success
Identifies what people are likely to seek after. Low achievers like easy tasks where success is guaranteed or very difficult tasks no one expects them to win.
How much (level of) pride or shame one experiences
How the four other components interact to influence behavior. (personality, situation, resultant tendencies, and emotional reactions)
Focuses on how people explain their successes and failures respectively.
select challenging tasks, prefer intermediate risks, and perform better when they are being evaluated.
avoid challenging tasks, avoid intermediate risks, and perform worse when they are being evaluated.
talent or good ability...etc
good luck, weather...etc
factors in control
race plan, strategy
factors out of control
how opponent performs
Attributions affect what?
The expectations (outcome expectancies) the athlete has of FUTURE success or failure and emotional reactions!
Achievement goal theory
A theory regarding the manner in which success is defined both by the individual and within the achievement situation itself, Three factors interact to determine a persons motivation:
Perceived Ability =
What are the two achievement goal types?
Outcome oriented goal (competitive goal orientation)
Task oriented goal (mastery goal orientation)
Competence Motivation Theory
motivation is indirectly influenced by feeling of competence, self-worth, as well as perceptions of control
The behavior of giving up or not responding to punishment, exhibited by people or animals exposed to negative consequences or punishment over which they have no control, the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events *Can vary in specificity (hopeless in one thing, but not another)
What are some indicators that someone has given up? (aka learned helplessness)
Person seldom tries new skills.
If person tries new skill and fails in 1st attempt, person asks why he/she should even try since he/she is no good anyway.
Reaction to initial failure is embarrassment and decreased effort.
butterfly effect. Every small thing can have an effect bigger than you think.