FAA Fixer

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To obtain a continuous transcribed weather briefing, including winds aloft and route forecasts for a cross-country flight, a pilot should monitor a...

...Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) on an NDB or a VOR facility.

(The TWEB provides continuous aeronautical and meteorological information over certain NDB and VOR facilities including selected route forecasts.)

(Refer to figure 18.) What weather phenomenon is causing IFR conditions in central Oklahoma?

Low ceilings and visibility.

(The IFR weather in central Oklahoma is due to fog (=) which is reducing visibility to ¾ - 2½ miles with low ceilings of 100' to 400'. A shaded area indicates IFR conditions.)

What are characteristics of a moist, unstable air mass?

Cumuliform clouds and showery precipitation.

During operations at altitudes of more than 1,200 feet AGL and at or above 10,000 feet MSL, the minimum distance above clouds requirement for VFR flight is...

...1,000 feet.

(VFR flight in Class E airspace above 10,000' MSL requires 1,000' above clouds.)

If it is necessary to set the altimeter from 29.15 to 29.85, what change occurs?

700-foot increase in indicated altitude.
One inch of Hg is equal to approximately 1,000' of altitude. The difference between 29.15 and 29.85 is an increase of .70" Hg, or 700' of increased altitude indication.

In which situation is advection fog most likely to form?

An air mass moving inland from the coast in winter.

(Advection fog forms when moist air moves over colder ground or water.)

What should be the first action after starting an aircraft engine?

Adjust for proper RPM and check for desired indications on the engine gauges.

(As soon as the engine starts, ensure that the aircraft is not moving, set the power to the recommended RPM, and check the engine gauges for proper indications.)

During an approach to a stall, an increased load factor will cause the airplane to...

... stall at a higher airspeed.

(An airplane's stalling speed increases in proportion to the square root of the load factor. A higher load factor raises the stall speed.)

What are characteristics of unstable air?

Turbulence and good surface visibility.

(Unstable air is usually turbulent with good surface visibilities.)

What measurement can be used to determine the stability of the atmosphere?

Actual lapse rate.

(The difference between the existing lapse rate of a given mass of air and the adiabatic rates of cooling in upward moving air determines if the air is stable.)

How should the flight controls be held while taxiing a tricycle-gear equipped airplane with a left quartering tailwind?

Left aileron down, elevator down.

An airplane has been loaded in such a manner that the CG is located aft of the aft CG limit. One undesirable flight characteristic a pilot might experience with this airplane would be...

difficulty in recovering from a stalled condition.

Moist, stable air flowing upslope can be expected to...

...produce stratus type clouds.

(When stable air is forced upward, the air tends to retain horizontal flow, and any cloudiness is flat and stratified thus stratus type clouds.)

At approximately what altitude above the surface would the pilot expect the base of cumuliform clouds if the surface air temperature is 82 °F and the dewpoint is 38 °F?

10,000 feet AGL.

(As a rule of thumb, divide the difference between the temperature and dew point by 4.4 to determine the height of the cloud base. 82° F - 38° F = 44. 44 / 4.4 = 10 (in thousands of feet) or 10,000'.)

What is a characteristic of stable air?

Stratiform clouds.

(When stable air is forced upward, the air tends to retain horizontal flow, and any cloudiness is flat and stratified thus stratus type clouds.)

Which weather conditions should be expected beneath a low-level temperature inversion layer when the relative humidity is high?

Smooth air, poor visibility, fog, haze, or low clouds.

(A ground based inversion favors poor visibility by trapping fog, smoke, and other restrictions into low levels of the atmosphere. An inversion is a stable air mass and would have smooth air.)

A temperature inversion would most likely result in which weather condition?

An increase in temperature as altitude is increased.

(By definition, a temperature inversion is an increase in temperature as altitude is increased. The normal temperature "lapse rate" is inverted.)

What feature is associated with a temperature inversion?

A stable layer of air.

(If the temperature increases with altitude through a layer, an inversion, the layer is stable and convection is suppressed.)

How is engine operation controlled on an engine equipped with a constant-speed propeller?

The throttle controls power output as registered on the manifold pressure gauge and the propeller control regulates engine RPM.

What information is contained in the Notices to Airman Publication (NTAP)?

Current NOTAM (D) and FDC NOTAMs.

(There are three types of NOTAMS, "L" - local, "D" - distant, and "FDC" - Flight Data Center. The NTAP - Notices to Airman Publications - includes "D", "FDC", and occasionally some "L" NOTAMS.)

How should the flight controls be held while taxiing a tailwheel airplane into a right quartering headwind?

Right aileron up, elevator up.

How should the flight controls be held while taxiing a tricycle-gear equipped airplane into a left quartering headwind?

Left aileron up, elevator neutral.

During an approach to a stall, an increased load factor will cause the airplane to...

...stall at a higher airspeed.

(An increased load factor must be supported by increased lift. This lift comes through an increased angle of attack (AOA) for a given airspeed. The critical AOA is reached at a higher airspeed and the wing stalls.)

A stable air mass is most likely to have which characteristic?

Poor surface visibility.

Refer to figure 53.) Which type radar service is provided to VFR aircraft at Lincoln Municipal?

Sequencing to the primary Class C airport, traffic advisories, conflict resolution, and safety alerts.

What would decrease the stability of an air mass?

Warming from below.

(When air near the surface is warm and moist, suspect instability.)

Which aileron positions should a pilot generally use when taxiing in strong quartering headwinds?

Aileron up on the side from which the wind is blowing.

The most frequent type of ground or surface-based temperature inversion is that which is produced by...

...terrestrial radiation on a clear, relatively still night.

A precaution for the operation of an engine equipped with a constant-speed propeller is to...

...avoid high manifold pressure settings with low RPM.

(For any given RPM there is a manifold pressure that should not be exceeded. If manifold pressure is excessive for a given RPM, the pressure within the cylinders could be exceeded, placing undue stress on them. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations.)

Steady precipitation preceding a front is an indication of...

...stratiform clouds with little or no turbulence.

(Precipitation from stratiform clouds is usually steady and there is little or no turbulence.)

A pilot can expect a wind-shear zone in a temperature inversion whenever the windspeed at 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the surface is at least...

...25 knots

While cruising at 9,500 feet MSL, the fuel/air mixture is properly adjusted. What will occur if a descent to 4,500 feet MSL is made without readjusting the mixture?

The fuel/air mixture may become excessively lean.

What is absolute altitude?

Absolute altitude is the vertical distance of an aircraft above the terrain.

What is true altitude?

True altitude is the true vertical distance of the aircraft above sea level. It is the actual altitude of the aircraft.

Under which condition will pressure altitude be equal to true altitude?

When standard atmospheric conditions exist.

(True altitude is the actual altitude above mean sea level. Pressure altitude is the altitude in the standard atmosphere where pressure is the same as where you are. Pressure altitude is the same as true altitude in standard atmosphere.)

Thunderstorms reach their greatest intensity during the...

...mature stage.

What is pressure altitude?

The altitude indicated when the barometric pressure scale is set to 29.92. The height above the standard datum plane.

To set the high intensity runway lights on medium intensity, the pilot should click the microphone seven times, and then click it...

...five times within five seconds.

If the outside air temperature (OAT) at a given altitude is warmer than standard, the density altitude is...

... higher than pressure altitude.

What is density altitude?

The pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature.

What is indicated altitude?

The altitude read directly from the altimeter.

In which environment is aircraft structural ice most likely to have the highest accumulation rate?

Freezing rain.

Which condition would cause the altimeter to indicate a lower altitude than true altitude?

Air temperature warmer than standard.

(When air is warmer than average, the aircraft is higher than the altimeter indicates. Therefore, the altimeter will read lower than the aircraft's actual altitude.)

Under what condition will true altitude be lower than indicated altitude?

In colder than standard air temperature.

(True altitude will be lower than indicated altitude when the aircraft is in an air temperature colder than standard.)

Low-level turbulence can occur and icing can become hazardous in which type of fog?

Steam fog.

(Steam fog forms in winter when cold, dry air passes over comparatively warm water. The result is low level turbulence and icing.)

What is absolute altitude?

The vertical distance of the aircraft above the surface.

The uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in advance of normal spark ignition is known as...

... pre-ignition.

Which color identifies the power-off stalling speed in a specified configuration?

Lower limit of the green arc.

An above glide slope indication from a tri-color VASI is...

...an amber light signal.

If it is necessary to set the altimeter from 29.15 to 29.85, what change occurs?

700-foot increase in indicated altitude.

(One inch of Hg is equal to approximately 1,000' of altitude. The difference between 29.15 and 29.85 is an increase of .70" Hg, or 700' of increased altitude indication.)

Detonation may occur at high-power settings when...

...the fuel mixture ignites instantaneously instead of burning progressively and evenly.

(Detonation is a sudden explosion or shock to a small area of the piston top. Detonation may occur at high-power settings when the fuel mixture ignites instantaneously instead of burning progressively and evenly.)

What situation is most conducive to the formation of radiation fog?

Warm, moist air over low, flatland areas on clear, calm nights.

As altitude increases, the indicated airspeed at which a given airplane stalls in a particular configuration will...

...remain the same regardless of altitude.

(Indicated airspeed is dependent on the amount of ram air pressure entering the pitot tube. Regardless of an aircraft's altitude, the indicated airspeed for a particular maneuver remains the same.)

What indicates the maximum structural cruising speed?

The upper end of the green ark.

Changes in the center of pressure of a wing affect the aircraft's...

...aerodynamic balance and controllability.

(The center of pressure (CP) changes with the angle of attack. The airplane's aerodynamic balance and controllability are governed by changes in the center of pressure.)

In which situation is advection fog most likely to form?

An air mass moving inland from the coast in winter.

If a flight is made from an area of high pressure into an area of lower pressure without the altimeter setting being adjusted, the altimeter will indicate...

...higher than the actual altitude above sea level.

(When flying from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure, the aircraft will be lower than the indication on the altimeter. Therefore, the altimeter will read higher than the aircraft's actual altitude.)

An airplane said to be inherently stable will...

... require less effort to control

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the right from a south heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

The compass will indicate a turn to the right, but at a faster rate than is actually occurring.

In the Northern Hemisphere, a magnetic compass will normally indicate a turn toward the north if...

...an aircraft is accelerated while on an east or west heading.

(Acceleration / deceleration error is most pronounced on a heading of east or west. ANDS: Accelerate, North, Decelerate, South.)

Which color identifies the power-off stalling speed with wing flaps and landing gear in the landing configuration?

Lower limit of the white arc.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the magnetic compass will normally indicate a turn toward the south when...

...the aircraft is decelerated while on a west heading.

(Acceleration / deceleration error is most pronounced on a heading of east or west. ANDS: Accelerate, North, Decelerate, South.)

How do variations in temperature affect the altimeter?

Pressure levels are raised on warm days and the indicated altitude is lower than true altitude.

(On a warm day the atmosphere expands. An aircraft will actually be higher than the altimeter is indicating (higher pressure level). On a cold day the atmosphere contracts and an aircraft will be lower than the altimeter is indicating.)

If a pilot changes the altimeter setting from 30.11 to 29.96, what is the approximate change in indication?

Altimeter will indicate 150 feet lower.

(The difference between 30.11 and 29.96 is .15" Hg. The standard lapse rate is 1" Hg per 1,000' in altitude. Therefore, .15 x 1,000' = 150' and the indication would be lower.)

What is true altitude?

The vertical distance of the aircraft above sea level.

Upon encountering severe turbulence, which flight condition should the pilot attempt to maintain?

Level flight attitude.

(Maintain a constant attitude, let the aircraft "ride the waves".)

If a pilot suspects that the engine (with a fixed-pitch propeller) is detonating during climb-out after takeoff, the initial corrective action to take would be to...

...lower the nose slightly to increase airspeed.

(Engine detonation results in an overheated engine. Engine temperature can be reduced by lowering the nose of the aircraft to increase the flow of air over the cylinders and reduce engine strain.)

Which factor would tend to increase the density altitude at a given airport?

An increase in ambient temperature.

(The primary factor that would tend to increase density altitude at a given airport is an increase in ambient temperature. The hotter the air temperature, the less dense the air. This is equivalent to increasing density altitude.)

Detonation occurs in a reciprocating aircraft engine when...

...the unburned charge in the cylinders explodes instead of burning normally.

(Detonation or knock is the explosive burning of the fuel/air mixture inside the cylinder.)

While practicing S-turns, a consistently smaller half-circle is made on one side of the road than on the other, and this turn is not completed before crossing the road or reference line. This would most likely occur in turn...

...4-5-6 because the bank is increased too rapidly during the early part of the turn.

(With the wind shown, a steep bank at point 4 will cause the aircraft to be pushed toward the road and inscribe a smaller half circle than the 1-2-3 half circle. The bank should be shallow at point 4 and gradually increased as the turn progresses.)

If a flight is made from an area of low pressure into an area of high pressure without the altimeter setting being adjusted, the altimeter will indicate...

...lower than the actual altitude above sea level.

(When flying from an area of low pressure to an area of high pressure, the aircraft will be higher than the indication on the altimeter. Therefore, the altimeter will read lower than the aircraft's actual altitude.)

If a certificated pilot changes permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airmen Certification Branch of the new address, the pilot is entitled to exercise the privileges of the pilot certificate for a period of only...

...30 days after the date of the move.

(A pilot must notify the FAA within 30 days of a permanent change of mailing address or he cannot exercise the privilege of his certificate.)

What effect does haze have on the ability to see traffic or terrain features during flight?

All traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than their actual distance.

A third-class medical certificate was issued to a 19-year-old pilot on August 10, this year. To exercise the privileges of a recreational or private pilot certificate, the medical certificate will expire at midnight on...

...August 31, 5 years later.

(A third class medical expires 60 months (5 years) after the month of the examination date if the person has not reached his 40th birthday on or before the examination date.)

Pilots are more subject to spatial disorientation if...

...visual cues are taken away, as they are in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).

How should contact be established with an En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) station, and what service would be expected?

Call Flight Watch on 122.0 for information regarding actual weather and thunderstorm activity along proposed route.

(EFAS provides en route aircraft with timely weather advisories pertinent to the type of flight. Below 18,000', establish contact on the common frequency of 122.0 MHz.)

For private pilot operations, a Second-Class Medical Certificate issued to a 42-year-old pilot on July 15, this year, will expire at midnight on...

... July 31, 2 years later.

(Second-class medical privileges for private pilot operations expire at the end of the 24th month after the month of the date of the examination if the person has reached his 40th birthday on or before the date of the examination.)

Unless otherwise specified, Federal Airways include that Class E airspace extending upward from...

...1,200 feet above the surface up to and including 17,999 feet MSL.

(Federal airways normally begin at 1,200' AGL and continue up to, but not including, 18,000' MSL.)

The pilot in command is required to hold a type rating in which aircraft?

Aircraft having a gross weight of more than 12,500 pounds.

From whom should a departing VFR aircraft request radar traffic information during ground operations?

Ground control, on initial contact.

(Pilots of departing VFR aircraft are encouraged to request radar traffic information by notifying ground control on initial contact with their request and proposed direction of flight.)

Below FL180, en route weather advisories should be obtained from an FSS on...

...122.0 MHz.

What is the minimum number of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites that are observable by a user anywhere on earth?

5

Which incident requires an immediate notification to the nearest NTSB field office?

Flight control system malfunction or failure.

What often leads to spatial disorientation or collision with ground/obstacles when flying under Visual Flight Rules (VFR)?

Continual flight into instrument conditions.

If a control tower and an FSS are located on the same airport, which function is provided by the FSS during those periods when the tower is closed?

Airport Advisory Service.

For private pilot operations, a First-Class Medical Certificate issued to a 23-year-old pilot on October 21, this year, will expire at midnight on...

...October 31, 5 years later.

(A first-class medical certificate used for private pilot privileges expires at the end of the last day of the 60th month (5 years) after the month of the date of the examination if the person has not reached his 40th birthday.)

When the course deviation indicator (CDI) needle is centered during an omnireceiver check using a VOR test signal (VOT), the omnibearing selector (OBS) and the TO/FROM indicator should read...

...0° FROM or 180° TO, regardless of the pilot's position from the VOT.

A certificated private pilot may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider unless there is entered in the pilot's logbook a minimum of...

...100 hours of pilot-in-command time in the aircraft category, class, and type, if required, that the pilot is using to tow a glider.

Basic radar service in the terminal radar program is best described as...

...safety alerts, traffic advisories, and limited vectoring to VFR aircraft.

How soon after the conviction for driving while intoxicated by alcohol or drugs shall it be reported to the FAA, Civil Aviation Security Division?

No later than 60 days after the motor vehicle action.

(Refer to figure 30, illustration 2.) Determine the approximate heading to intercept the 180° bearing TO the station.

220°.

(To intercept the 180° bearing to the station, turn 180° to parallel it. The needle will point 10° to the right. Turning right to a heading of 220° will give a 30° intercept.)

No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

...except by prior arrangement with the pilot in command of each aircraft.

A special VFR clearance authorizes the pilot of an aircraft to operate VFR while within Class D airspace when the visibility is...

...at least 1 mile and the aircraft can remain clear of clouds.

VFR flight in controlled airspace above 1,200 feet AGL and below 10,000 feet MSL requires a minimum visibility and vertical cloud clearance of...

...3 miles, and 500 feet below or 1,000 feet above the clouds in controlled airspace.

A chair-type parachute must have been packed by a certificated and appropriately rated parachute rigger within the preceding...

...120 days.

Unless each occupant is provided with supplemental oxygen, no person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry above a maximum cabin pressure altitude of...

...15,000 feet MSL.

The minimum flight visibility required for VFR flights above 10,000 feet MSL and more than 1,200 feet AGL in controlled airspace is...

...5 miles.

What minimum flight visibility is required for VFR flight operations on an airway below 10,000 feet MSL?

3 miles.

Safety belts are required to be properly secured about which persons in an aircraft and when?

Passengers, during taxi, takeoffs, and landings only.

Where may an aircraft's operating limitations be found if the aircraft has an Experimental or Special light-sport airworthiness certificate?

Attached to the Airworthiness Certificate.

When operating an aircraft at cabin pressure altitudes above 12,500 feet MSL up to and including 14,000 feet MSL, supplemental oxygen shall be used during...

...that flight time in excess of 30 minutes at those altitudes.

What minimum radio equipment is required for operation within Class C airspace?

Two-way radio communications equipment, a 4096-code transponder, and an encoding altimeter.

At what altitude shall the altimeter be set to 29.92, when climbing to cruising flight level?

18,000 feet MSL.

What is the lowest altitude permitted for acrobatic flight?

1,500 feet AGL.

With certain exceptions, all aircraft within 30 miles of a Class B primary airport from the surface upward to 10,000 feet MSL must be equipped with...

...an operable transponder having either Mode S or 4096-code capability with Mode C automatic altitude reporting capability.

Unless otherwise authorized, the maximum indicated airspeed at which aircraft may be flown when at or below 2,500 feet AGL and within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of Class C airspace is...

...200 knots.

What action is required when two aircraft of the same category converge, but not head-on?

The aircraft on the left shall give way.

Which is normally prohibited when operating a restricted category civil aircraft?

Flight over a densely populated area.

A, B, C, D, E, G

None, None
Clear, 3
5, 3
5, 3
5, 3
1, 5
Clear, 1
5, 3

No person may operate an aircraft in acrobatic flight when...

...over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement.

Which cruising altitude is appropriate for a VFR flight on a magnetic course of 135°?

Odd thousandths plus 500 feet.

(When cruising on a magnetic course between 0° and 179° use an altitude of odd thousands plus 500'.)

No person may use an ATC transponder unless it has been tested and inspected within at least the preceding...

...24 calendar months.

No person may operate an aircraft in acrobatic flight when the flight visibility is less than...

...3 miles.

Which light signal from the control tower clears a pilot to taxi?

Flashing green.

If the control tower uses a light signal to direct a pilot to give way to other aircraft and continue circling, the light will be...

...steady red.

For VFR flight operations above 10,000 feet MSL and more than 1,200 feet AGL, the minimum horizontal distance from clouds required is...

...1 mile.

A flashing white light signal from the control tower to a taxiing aircraft is an indication to...

... return to the starting point on the airport.

When flying in a VFR corridor designated through Class B airspace, the maximum speed authorized is...

...200 knots.

An approved chair-type parachute may be carried in an aircraft for emergency use if it has been packed by an appropriately rated parachute rigger within the preceding...

...120 days.

Each person operating an aircraft at a VFR cruising altitude shall maintain an odd-thousand plus 500-foot altitude while on a...

...magnetic course of 0° through 179°.

(as opposed to heading)

What are the minimum requirements for airplane operations under special VFR in Class D airspace at night?

The pilot must be instrument rated, and the airplane must be IFR equipped.

All operations within Class C airspace must be in...

...an aircraft equipped with a 4096-code transponder with Mode C encoding capability.

The section of the Area Forecast entitled 'VFR CLDS/ WX' contains a general description of...

...clouds and weather which cover an area greater than 3,000 square miles and is significant to VFR flight operations.

What is indicated when a current CONVECTIVE SIGMET forecasts thunderstorms?

Thunderstorms obscured by massive cloud layers.

Absence of the sky condition and visibility on an ATIS broadcast indicates that...

...the ceiling is at least 5,000 feet and visibility is 5 miles or more.

The only cloud type forecast in TAF reports is...

...Cumulonimbus.

To determine the freezing level and areas of probable icing aloft,the pilot should refer to the...

...Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories.

The vertical limit of Class C airspace above the primary airport is normally...

...4,000 feet.

Prior to entering an Airport Advisory Area, a pilot should...

...contact the local FSS for airport and traffic advisories.

What does the heavy dashed line that forms a large rectangular box on a radar summary chart refer to?

Severe weather watch area.

Which type of weather briefing should a pilot request to supplement mass disseminated data?

An abbreviated briefing.

When the term 'light and variable' is used in reference to a Winds Aloft Forecast, the coded group and windspeed is...

...9900 and less than 5 knots.

How does the wake turbulence vortex circulate around each wingtip?

Outward, upward, and around each tip.

Which initial action should a pilot take prior to entering Class C airspace?

Contact approach control on the appropriate frequency.

Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEBs) may be monitored by tuning the appropriate radio receiver to certain...

...VOR and NDB frequencies.

The airspace overlying Mc Kinney (TKI) is controlled from the surface to...

...2,900 feet MSL.

A non-tower satellite airport, within the same Class D airspace as that designated for the primary airport, requires radio communications be established and maintained with the...

...primary airport's control tower.

Individual forecasts for specific routes of flight can be obtained from which weather source?

Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEBs).

To obtain a continuous transcribed weather briefing, including winds aloft and route forecasts for a cross-country flight, a pilot should monitor a...

... Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) on an NDB or a VOR facility.

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