-Tensions rose in 1819 when Missouri's application for statehood stirred up controversy over whether the country should expand westward.
-Missouri's territorial gvt requested admission into the Union as a slave state in 1819.
-Senate added an amendment to prohibit slavery in LA territory N of MO's S boundary.
-Becomes 24th state. Passes 1820
President Andrew Jackson's Election
Led in popular vote, but didn't win necessary electoral votes. Decision went to the House. John Quincy Adams won. Wins 4 years later.
Practice of appointing people to government jobs based on party loyalty and support.
The Bank War
-Charter for new nat'l bank is up for renewal.
-Congress passes new charter
-Jackson vetoes bill, wants to limit the power of the federal government.
-Irreconcilable differences forced Dem-Rep to split into 2 parties. Democrats, led by Jackson. Whigs, led by Henry Clay
Democratic Party ( State's Rights)
-Rejected established authority
-Wanted to end corruption in politics
Indian Removal Act
Increased pressure from the states to remove Indians.
-GA,AL,and MS deny Indians legal rights. -> Indian Removal Act.
Relocates indians to inhabited regions W of Miss River.
-1838 Martin Van Buren sends people to forcibly remove them.
John Calhoun wrote book that said that states have the right to nullify federal law.
-3/4 of states could amend the Constitution to create a nullification law.
-If passed, nullifying state could leave the Union.
-SC nullifies gov tariffs
-Jackson disagrees with the succession clause.
-Congress passes Force Act and Compromise Tariff of 1833. -Ends nullification crisis.
Effects of Nullification Crisis
Establishes Federal Supremacy. Federal government always wins.
Creation of anti-Jackson coalition among southerners.
Federal Government. Opposition to Jackson. Wanted to expand federal gvt, encourage industrial and commercial development and centralized economy
Idea that the nation was meant to spread to the Pacific.
Texas's entry into the Union made Mexica mad. Disputed TX SW border. Senate votes in favor of war.
Compromise of 1850
CA comes in as a free state and organizes the rest of the Mexican cession without any restrictions on slavery.
-Ended slave trade in DC.
-Passed fugitive slave act.
Fugitive Slave Act
Benefits slaveholders. Created active hostility towards slavery among Northerners. Slaveholder only had to point out an alleged run away.
Network of abolitionists helped them. Harriet Tubman - most famous conductor.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Caused Southern outrage. Impact on public opinion. Caused civil war?
Nebraska became a free state. Kansas would become a slave state. 1854.
-Civil war erupts in Kansas.
Reemergence of Republicans
N Whigs joined w/ Free-Soilers and anti slave Democrats to form Republican Party.
GOAL: Stop Southern Planters from becoming an aristocracy that controlled government. Slavery should be kept out of the territories.
N Dems -> American party aka Know Nothings.
-Anti Catholic and Nativist.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Dred Scott was a MO slave who had been taken North to work in free territory. He sued to end his slavery.
Supreme court dismissed it bc Scott wasn't a citizen. Would have lost anyways.
John Brown's Raid
Abolitionist who opposed slavery with violence. Seized the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA. Free enslaved people in the area and rebel against slaveholders.
President Abraham Lincoln
Elected president in 1850. Within days of his election, SC becomes 1st state to secede.
-Believed slavery was morally wrong, opposed spread of it to the Western Territories.
Starts with South Carolina. Followed by Miss., FL, AL, GE, LA, and TX
First to fall. Confederate forces bombarded it for 33 hours.
Advantages of North During the War
North: More money, people..etc. Anaconda plan!
Advantages of South During the War
More respected generals
Military rule. Established in Baltimore.
Court order that requires the government to charge an imprisioned person with a crime or let them go free.
Anaconda Plan- Blockade of Southern Ports. Only a long war focused on destroyig the South's armies
Pick battles carefully. Attacking and retreating when necessary to avoid heavy losses. Defensive war of attrition. Goal: to take over DC
Battle of Antietam
Crucial Union victory. British government was ready to intervene. South lost its best chance at international recognition and support..
Decree freeing all enslaved people in states still in rebellion after Jan 1, 1863.
Life on the Battlefield
Battle of Gettysburg
Union won. Strengthened republicans. Disaster for the South. 1/3 of their army was dead.
Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman - In charge of Union operations in West while Grant headed East to fight Lee. Sherman heads to South carolina.
The South Surrenders
The capture of Atlanta revitalized Northern support for the war and lincoln.
Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction
Lincoln offered a general amnesty to all SOutherners who took an oath of loyalty to the US.
-Wanted a moderate plan to reconcile the south with the union instead of punishing it for treason.
Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction
People could individually appeal for amnesty. Required states to ratify 13th ammendment.
Est. by Congress. Helped formerly enslaved people find work on plantations and negociated labor contracts with planters. Congress refused to confirm the right of African Americans to own lands that had been seized from plantation owners.
Congressional Plan for Reconstruction
(republican dominated) Freedmen's Bureau. 14th and 15th Ammendment. Military Reconstruction act.
Seemed to be intended to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery. Required them to enter into annual labor contracts.
Bans slavery in US
Granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S. and declared that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty and property without due process of law
Declared that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude
Southern Resistance to Reconstruction
Southern opponents of Reconstruction to undermine republican rule - Ku Klux Klan
Failures of the Reconstruction
-Republicans lose power in House and Senate
-Reconstruction left blacks trapped in poverty.
Redemption and Compromise of 1877
Included a promise to pull federal troops out of the South.