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Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal Patterns

2 types of growth patterns

Cephalocaudal Pattern

Sequence in which fastest growth always occurs at the top-the head

Cephalocaudal Pattern

Growth pattern in which growth in size, weight and feature differentiation gradually work its way down from top to bottom

The lower parts (as the jaws)

According to the cephalocaudal pattern, the eyes and brain grow faster than these (explains why little ones have such big eyes)

Sensory and Motor

These 2 types of development follow the cephalocaudal principle

Torso; crawl or walk

Cephalocaudal principle; infants can see before they can control this; they use their hands before they can do these 2 things

Proximodistal Pattern

This is the growth sequence that starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities

Hands and Fingers

According to the proximodistal pattern, muscle control of the trunk and arms matures before control of these 2 things

95%

This percent of newborns are 18-20 inches long and weigh between 5.5 and 10 lbs

20 inches and 7.5 pounds

The average newborn is this length and weight

5-7%

During the first several days of life, most newborns lose this percent of their weight; but once they adjust to sucking and feeding they gain 5-6 ounces/week during the first month

4 months; 1 year

Infants double their weight by this many months, and triple their weight by this time

1

Infants grow this many inches per month during the first year and reach 1.5x their birth length by the end of first year

Cerebral Cortex

This part of the brain is responsible for 80% of brain volume and is critical in perception, thinking, language and other functions, particularly the prefrontal cotrex

Prefrontal Cortex

The cerebral cortex is critical for many functions including this cortex

Frontal Lobes

This part of the brain is involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality

Occipital Lobes

This part of the brain is responsible for vision

Temporal Lobes

This part of the brain is responsible for hearing, language and memory

Parietal Lobes

This part of the brain is responsible for touch, spatial location, attention and motor control

Neurons

These send information impulses throughout the nervous system from neuron to neuron across synapses via neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

These are used to transfer impulses between neurons across the synapse

Experience

Neuroscientists believe that what wires and re-wires the brain is this

Deprived

Children who grow up in this kind of environment may have depressed brain acitivity

Attachment

In this, both baby's brain and mom's brain show physical changes

25%

At birth the newborn's brain reaches this percent of its adult weight

75%

By the 2nd birthday, the brain reaches this percent of its adult weight

Myelination

This is the process of encasing axons with a myelin sheath; this begins in utero and continues throughout childhood into adolescence

Adolescence

Most extensive myelination in the prefrontal cortex occur during this time

Synaptic

These kinds of connections increase dramatically in the first 2 years of life; nearyly twice as many as used are created; they are then pruned as they are not needed

2

Nearly this times as many synaptic connections as used are created; and then prunes as they are not needed

16-17 Hours

Newborns sleeo this many hours per day (range is 10-21 hours)

Night

The longest period of sleep is not always at this time

4 Months

By this time, infants have moved closer to adult-like sleep patterns, sleeping most at night

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep

This is sleep in which brain activity is similar to when we are relaxed but awake; the eyeballs move rapidly

1/5

Most adults spend this fraction of the night in REM sleep; sleep usually appears 1 hour after non-REM sleep; for adults dreaming mainly occurs during REM

1/2

Infants spend this much of their sleep in REM

Infants

They often begin their sleep in REM

Adults

They often enter REM 1 hour after sleep

3 Months

By the time infants reach this age, REM sleep drops to 40% and they no longer begin sleep in REM

Perceptions

The infant's brain is too immature to process most of these (dreaming)

Sight

It is a while before this is developed enough in an infant to process his/her surrounding

Vitreous

The darting of eyes of REM sleep serve the vital function of lubricating this of the eye

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

This is when infants stop breathing, usually during the night, without cause (highest cause of infant death in the US)

4-6 Weeks

Risk of SIDS is highest at this many weeks

Backs

SIDS risk decreses when babies sleep on this

SIDS

Risks for this include low birth weight (5-10x more likely); and infants whose sibling died of this (2-4x more likely); soft bedding

6%

Sleep apnea affects this percent of infants

SIDS

This is more common in socio-economic groups (lack of education)

SIDS

This is more common in infants passively exposed to cigarette smoke

Poverty

This influences health through its effects on nutrition

Energy and Nutrition

In infancy the importance of receiving adequate amounts of these 2 things in a loving, supportive environment cannot be overstated

50

Nutritionists recommend that infants consume this many cals/day for each pound they weigh

Childhood Obesity

Advantage of breast feeding; Appropriate weight gain with a lower risk of this

Fewer Allergies

Advantage of breast feeding; fewer of these due to immunity from mom

Diarrhea, respiratory infections, bacterial and urinary tract infections, and otitis media (middle ear infection)

Advantage of breast feeding; Reduction of these things

Denser Bones

Advantage of breast feeding; denser this during childhood and adulthood

SIDS

Advantage of breast feeding; lower incidence of this (cut in half)

Neurological and Cognitive

Advantage of breast feeding; improved visual acuity as well as these 2 kinds of development

Breastfeed

Moms who are HIV positive should not do this; and moms who have active TB or moms who are on drugs that may not be safe for the infant

Marasmus

This is severe malnutrition due to insufficient caloric intake

Marasmus

Infants who have this disease caused by malnutrition have a wasted apprearence

Kwashiorkor

This is sever malnutrition due to protein deficiency; child's abdomen and feet swell with water

Developing Countries

Malnutrition in infancy are more prevalent in these countries

Reflexes

These are automatic responses beyond the infant's control; built-in reactions to stimuli

Survival Mechanisms

Developmental psychologists think of reflexes as survival mechanisms

Nervous System

Reflexes indicate the maturity and effectiveness of this in the infants

Sucking Reflex

Reflex; way to get nutrition from mom or the bottle

Rooting Reflex

Reflex; stroke an infant;s cheek and he/she will turn his/her heard searching for the breast

Moro Reflex

Reflex; startle response that occurs due to a loud noise or a movement that scared the infant; the infant arches back, throws out his/her arms and then comes forward to grasp onto the caretaker; attachment theory says the infant holds on and bonds to the caretaker

Grasping Reflex

Reflex; put your finger on the palm of the infant's hand; he/she will grab onto your finger

Arnold Gesell

He discovered that infants and children develop rolling, sitting, standing and other motor skills in a fixed order within specific time frames

Development

Later studies of the Gesell's view on this pointed out that this is not quite so fixed and not quite as genetically based as Gesell though

Dynamic Systems Theory

This proposed by Esther Thelen claims that infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting; perception and action are coupled in the theory

Environment; movements

Dynamic Systems theory; to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something here that motivates them to act and use their perception to fine-tune these

Posture

Gross motor skills require this kind of control

Moving Objects

To track these, infants must be able to control its head to stabilize its gaze

Walk

To do this the infant must be able to balance on one leg

Dynamic Proces

Posture is this kind of process

Posture

This is a dynamic process that is linked with sensory information from cues in the skin, joints and muscles which tell the infant where he/she is

Vestibular Organs

Posture uses these organs in the inner ear the regulate balance and equilibrium

Erect

Within a few weeks, infants can hold their heads this way and can lift their heads while lying on their tummy

2 Months

By this age, babies can sit while supported on a lap or in an infant-seat

6-7 Months

Babies can sit independently by this many months

8 months

By this age, infants can pull themselves up and hold onto a chair

10-12 Months

Standing develops by this age

Depth Perception

This ability was evident in 6-12 month olds, before this not too many babies crawl; binocular vision (3-4 months) in order for cues

Expectations

By the time babies are 3 months, infants not only see forms and figures, but also develop these about future events

Predictable

When pictures were presented to infants in this kind of sequence, the infant began to turn his/her head in the direction of the predicted location of the next picture

6-8 Months

By this age, infants have learned to perceive gravity and support

Hear

From 7 months in utero, the fetus can do this

The Cat in the Hat

This was the book used to test hearing on infants in utero; after being born they preferred to hear this story because it was read to them in the womb

Learning

Considering babies who were read the Cat in the Hat in the womb preferred this book read to them when they were infants, this shows that they can not only hear in utero, but are also capable of this

Mother's

Newborns prefer this voice as opposed to an unfamiliar woman

Classical Music

Infants prefer this kind of music to rock

Pitch

Infants are less sensitive to this of a sound than adults are (can't determine frequency high or low, etc.)

Soft Sounds

Immediately after birth, infants cannot hear these sounds as well as adults can

Location

Newborns can identify this of the sounds; this ability develops through the second year

Human Speech

Newborns are particularly sensitive to the sounds of this

1 in 1000

About this many newborns are deaf; but this can usually be improved through surgery of the hearing aid

Otitis Media

1/3 of children from birth to 3 years suffer from this; middle-ear infection; can temporarily impede hearing

Otitis Media

Treatments for this include antibiotics and tubes in the inner ear to drain fluid

Touch

Newborns do respond to this; reflexes as palmer, rooting, and babinski demonstrate this

Pain

Newborns do feel this; this becomes an issue with circumcision of newborn boys; now little anesthesia is used

Odors

Newborns can differentiate these; they like the smells of vanilla and strawberry; but they do not like the smell of rotten eggs and fish

Breast Pad

By age 6 days, breast-fed babies have a preference for this of their mother's; at 2 days they do not have a preference because the sense is developing

Amniotic Fluid

In utero, swallowing increased when saccharin was added to the this

Salty Flavors

Newborns are aversive to these flavors, but by 4 months they prefer these flavors

Intermodal Perception

This involves integrating information from 2 or more sensory modalities such as vision and hearing (more than 1 sense)

Intermodal Perception

The fact that newborns look more at a mother/father when they hear his/her voice is an example of this kind of perception

Jean Piaget

He is a swiss psychologist who was a keen observer of children; used his own children as sibjects

Cognitive Developmental Theory

This theory is based on the assumption that children construct their understanding of the world; this theory is based on maturational development (children are little scientists)

Jean Piaget

Psychologist who came up with the cognitive developmental theory

Maturational Development

The cognitive developmental theory is dependent on this kind of development

Nature

The cognitive developmental theory is basically this kind of theory although it contains elements of the nurture theory

Nurture

While the cognitive developmental theory is basically a nature theory, since as children construct their understanding, they interact with their environment

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational Stage

4 stages of Piaget's cognitive developmental theory

Sensorimotor

Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; birth to age 2

Preoperational

Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; preschool years; 2-7 years

Concrete Operational

Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; 7-11 years

Formal Operational

Stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory; 11-adulthood

Schemes

These are a script of the events as they happen in a certain activity of scenario (lunch at McDonald's, a birthday party, a picnic in the park, drop the cup game)

Mentally Construct

As a child experiences various scenarios (schemes) they do this and form a schema to better organize and understand the event

Actions or Mental Representations

Schemes in Piaget's theory are this or this that organize knowledge

Assimilation

This occurs when children incorporate new information into their existing schemes

Accommodation

This occurs when children adjust their schemes to fit new information and experiences

Organization

This is grouping of isolated behaviors and thought into a higher-order system

Equilibration

This is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next

Equilibration

This is when conflict or differences occur in schemes; children must re-edjust their thought processes and behaviors to form a new scheme

Higher Ground

Assimilation and accommodation always take children to this

Equilibration

For piaget, the motivation for change in an internal search for this

New Way of Thinking

As old schemes are adjusted and new schemes are developed, the child reorganizes the old and new schemes to this

Physical, Motoric Actions

During the sensorimotor stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (seeing and hearing) with these 2 kinds of actions

Reflexive

At the beginning of the sensorimotor stage, newborns have little more than these patterns with which to work

Sensorimotor Patterns

By the end of the sensorimotor stage, 2 year olds can these kind of complex patterns and use primitive symbols

Simple-Reflexes

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; first month, rooting, etc.

First Habits and Primary Circular Reaction

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 1-4 months; finding and reacting with a body part

Habit

This is a scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus; part of the 2nd sub-stage of sensorimotor stage)

Circular Reaction

This is a repetitive action (finding a food and sucking on it); this involved finding and reacting with a body part

Secondary Circular Reactions

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 4-8 months; infant becomes more object oriented; shaking a rattle; first it happens by accident and the purposely

Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 8-12 months; infant coordinates vision and touch, hand and eye; this involves intentionality; infant might use one toy to get another toy

Intentionality

In one of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; coordination of secondary circular reactions; this involves this which means an infant might use one toy to get another toy

Tertiary Circular Reaction, Novelty and Curiosity

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 12-18 months; schemes in which the infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, doing new things to them;

Tertiary Circular Reaction, Novelty, and Curiosity

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; Piaget says this this stage is the start for human curiosity and interest in novelty

Internalization of Schemes

One of the 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor stage; 18-24 months; this is when infant develops ability to use primitive symbols (mimicking opening and closing of a box by opening and closing the mouth)

Object Permanence

This is the understanding that objects and events continue to exist when they cannot be seen, heard or touched

Object Permanence

Before this is achieved if you hide a toy under a blanket the infant does not look for it but they assume that it's gone

Object Permanence

After this is achieved an infant will search for an object after is is under the blanket

Language

This is a form of communication, whether spoken, written or signed, that is based on a system of symbols

Community

Language consists of the words used by this and the rules for varying and combining them

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