Biology Packet 2: Principles in Ecology

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76 terms · Combo with Ch 3 The Biosphere and 3 others

Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

ecology

part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere

biosphere

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

species

group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

population

assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area

community

Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment

ecosystem

group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities

biome

organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer

autotroph

organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph

producer

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

photosynthesis

Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates

chemosynthesis

organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer

heterotroph

organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph

consumer

organism that obtains energy by eating only plants

herbivore

organism that obtains energy by eating animals

carnivore

organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals

omnivore

organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter

detritivore

organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter.

decomposer

a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

food chain

network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem

food web

step in a food chain or food web

trophic level

diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web

ecological pyramid

Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level

biomass

the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

evaporation

loss of water from a plant through its leaves

transpiration

chemical substance that an organism requires to live

nutrient

process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia

nitrogen fixation

conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas

denitrification

single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem

limiting nutrient

an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient

algal bloom

the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interactions the organisms have with their environments are studied

ecology

the portion of Earth that supports life

biosphere

the living factors in an organism's environment

biotic factors

the nonliving factors in an organism's environment

abiotic factors

individual organisms of a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time

population

a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time

biological community

a biological commuunity and all of the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it

ecosystem

a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities

biome

where an organism lives

habitat

a role or position that an organism has in its environment

niche

the act of one organism consuming an other organism for food

predation

the close relationship that forms when two or more species live together

symbiosis

a relationship between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from each other

mutualism

a relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither hurt nor helped

commensalism

a relationship where one organism benefits at the expense of another

parasitism

an organism that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food

autotroph

an organism that gets its energy requirements from consuming other organisms

heterotroph

an organism which eat fragments of dead matter in an ecosystem and returns nutrients to the environment

detritivore

step in a food chain or web

trophic level

a simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem

food chain

a model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathyways in which energy flows through a group of organisms

food web

the total mass of living matter at a trophic level

biomass

anything that has mass and takes up space

matter

a chemical substance that an organism must obtain from its environment

nutrient

the exchange of matter through the biosphere

biogeochemical cycle

the process of capturing and converting nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants

nitrogen fixation

the conversion by bacteria of fixed nitrogen compounds to nitrogen gas

denitrification

an organizer that can make its own food

producer

an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms

consumer

a consumer that eats only plants

herbivore

a consumer that eats only animals

carnivore

a consumer that eats both plants and animals

omnivore

a carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms

scavenger

an organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

decomposer

a series of events in which one organism eats another

food chain

the pattern of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem

food web

a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web

energy pyramid

producers

What organism is the source of all the food in an ecosystem?

all the living and non-living things that interact in an area

ecosystem

the place where an organism lives and that provides the things it needs; (food, water, shelter, etc)

habitat

a living part of an ecosystem (plants, animals)

biotic factor

a non-living part of an ecosystem (water, sunlight, oxygen, temperature, soil)

abiotic factor

a group of organisms that are similar and reproduce fertile offspring

species

all the members of one species in a particular area

population

all the different populations that live together in an area

community

the study of how living things interact with each other and with their environment

ecology

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