Glencoe Biology Chapter 9 Vocabulary

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Glencoe Texas Biology 2004

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group from ATP, results in release of energy used in biological reactions, made of adenosine and 2 phosphate groups

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

energy-containing molecule made of adenosine and 3 phosphate groups which are attached to each other with high-energy bonds

Calvin cycle

series of reactions that uses carbon dioxide and products from the light-dependent reaction (NADPH and ATP) to produce glucose, is light-independent, 1 glucose molecule is produced for every 6 carbon dioxide molecules

chlorophyll

pigment that absorbs most wavelengths of light except green

electron transport chain

series of proteins embedded in thylakoid membrane along which energized electrons are transported; energy is released as electrons are passed from molecule to molecule

light-dependent reaction

reaction that requires light to occur. In photosynthesis: light energy is transferred to water which gets split into oxygen, 2 electrons, and 2 hydrogen ions; oxygen diffuses into atmosphere, NADP+ carries electrons and becomes NADPH, ATP is also created

light-independent reaction

reaction that does not require light. In photosynthesis: uses NADPH and ATP from light-dependent reaction with carbon dioxide to produce glucose

NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)

stores electron energy until it is transferred, has a phosphate group

photolysis

process that occurs during light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, uses light to split 2 water molecules into oxygen, 2 hydrogen ions, and 2 electrons

photosynthesis

process by which carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose; has 2 phases (light-dependent and light-independent)

pigment

molecule that absorbs specific wavelengths of light

aerobic

describing a chemical reaction that requires the presence of oxygen

alcoholic fermentation

used by yeast and some bacteria, anaerobic, uses pyruvic acid from glycolysis to produce carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, also produces 2 ATP

anaerobic

describing a chemical reaction that does not require the presence of oxygen

cellular respiration

process by which glucose is broken down in the mitochondria to produce carbon dioxide, water, heat, and ATP; occurs in 3 stages (glycolysis, citric acid cycle/Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain)

citric acid cycle

also known as Kreb's cycle, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, aerobic, produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule, 6 carbon dioxide molecules are released, NADH and FADH₂ are formed

glycolysis

occurs in cytoplasm, anaerobic, series of chemical reactions in which glucose molecule is broken down, uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvic acid

lactic acid fermentation

used when enough oxygen is not available (during heavy exercise), anaerobic, converts pyruvic acid from glycolysis to lactic acid, produces 2 ATP

NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

stores electron energy until it is transferred, does not have a phosphate group

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