Exercise Physiology

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Optimum Fitness, physiology of the cardiopulmonary (cardiovascular) system, energy productions in the cells, cardiopulmonary response to exercise, guidelines for cardiovascular fitness, basic Neuromuscular anatomy and physiology. Adaptions to strength training, guidelines for strength training, and flexibility Training.

Exercise Physiology

The study of the way cells and tissues of the body function during exercise

Physiology

processes and functions of an organism

Optimum Fitness

a balanced optimal level of cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility, as well as the achievement and maintenance of ideal body weight.

Cardiorespiratory

of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions

Muscular Strength

The amount of force a muscle can exert

Flexibility

The amount of movement that can be accomplished at a joint (an articulation), such as the knee or shoulder, and is usually referred to as the "range of motion about a joint."

Body Composition

Consisting of two dimensions, (1) Body fat (adipose tissue); and (2) fat-free weight (muscle, bones, blood, organs, etc)

Triglycerides

The bodies primary reserve of stored energy both in fat (adipose) cells located between skin and muscles all over the body, as well as within skeletal muscles

Cardiopulmonary

of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions

Cardiopulmonary System

a transport network

Cardio

refers to the heart

3 kinds of blood vessels

Arteries, Capillaries, Veins

Arteries

Carry blood with fresh oxygen (O2) away from the heart to be delivered to cells and tissue

Capillaries

Narrow thin walled vessels where the exchange of gases, nutrients, and cellular waste products occurs between the blood and the cells of the body.

Veins

A network of vessels through which the blood flows back to the heart to continue the cyclic blood flow.

The upper chamber of the Heart

Atria

The lower chamber of the Heart

Ventricles

Venous Blood

Received by the Right side of the Heart through the Veins

Freshly oxygenated blood

Received from the Left side of the Heart through the pulmonary veins then flows to the left Ventricle

Circulatory patterns

Pulmonary and Systemic

Rhythmic pattern phases

Systole and Diastole

Systole

The contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery

Diastole

The relaxation phase of the heartbeat

Cardiac Output

The amount of blood that FLOWS from each ventricle in one minute

Stroke Volume

The amount of blood PUMPED from each ventricle each time the heart beats

Ejection Fraction

The percentage of the total volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of Diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction

Oxygen extraction

The amount of oxygen taken from hemoglobin

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

The energy molecule or the bodies energy source

Aerobic

with oxygen, depending on free oxygen or air

Mitochondria

The cell structure that is the site of aerobic energy production

Anaerobic

without oxygen, living or active in the absence of free oxygen

Ischemia

Insuficient oxygen to the heart, can cause a stroke

Angina Pectoris

Pain and/or pressure in the chest due to Ischemia

Myocardial Infarction

destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle

Substances to produce ATP supply

Fat (fatty acids) and Carbohydrates (glucose)

Glycogen

A molecule made up of chains of glucose stored in muscles and liver.

Creatine Phosphate

A molecule that can be quickly broken apart to help produce ATP

Kilocalorie (kcal)

The unit of energy used in exercise science

Phosphagens

creatine phosphate and ATP together

Lactic Acid

the by-products of anaerobic ATP production

Hyperventilation

Breathing faster when the muscles are spent (Can no longer produce enough ATP Areobically)

Enzymes

Proteins in the body used to produce ATP

VO2 Max

The total capacity to consume oxygen at the cellular level

What are the two factors of (VO2)

Cardiac Output and Oxygen Extraction

(cardiac output max) x (oxygen extraction max)

=Vo2max

Metabolic equivalent (MET)

The resting oxygen consumption

Heart Rate

The number of times the heart beats in one minute.

Aerobic System

with oxygen.

Anaerobic Glycolysis

The metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy production with requiring oxygen, sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system, or anaerobic glucose system, it produce lactic acid as a by-product.

Golgi Tendon Organ

A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force

Vasodilation

Increase in the diameter of blood vessels. dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries) leading to increase blood flow to a part of a body.

Vasoconstriction

Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the vessels.

Systolic blood pressure

The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions

Diastolic blood pressure

The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes between contractions

Overload Principle

Increase the intensity, frequency and duration beyond what is normally produced; Must overload the muscle to build strength; It is progressive: once adaptation to overload occurs, parameters must be increased again

Venous return

The amount of blood returned to the heart by the veins

Specificity of training

A key concept of periodization that states that for an individual to become proficient at any given movement, that movement must be trained and practiced; a specific demand (i.e., exercise) made on the body will result in a specific response by the body

Motor neurons

Nerve cells that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract; neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and glands

Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons

Acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the end of nerve fibers in the somatic AND parasympathetic nervous systems and is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the body

Neuromuscular Junction

the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies

Myofibrils

Contractile protein in a muscle fiber

Contractile

capable of contracting or being contracted

Actin

one of the contractile proteins in a myofibril

Myosin

the commonest protein in muscle, contractile proteins in a myofibril

Contractile Proteins

Actin and Myosin are what kind of proteins

Sarcomeres

The repeating unit of a muscle fiber

Sarcolemma

The membrane surrounding the sarcomeres which is the functional unit of muscle fibers

Sarcoplasm

the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber

Cytoplasm

the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.

Sarcoplasmic reticulation

The form of endoplasmic reticulation where calcium is stored to be used for muscle activation; located in striated muscle fibers

Sliding filament theory

The Theory of how muscles generate force, how Actin and Myosin proteins and ATP interact to cause muscle contraction

Cross-bridge

The bridge between myosin and Actin; when myosin heads attach to actin during contraction (step 2 in contraction cycle)

Concentric

A contraction that involves the muscle exerting force, shortens and overcomes force

Eccentric Contraction

A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens, and is overcome by a resistance

Isometric Contraction

A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, but does not change in length

Motor unit

a motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it stimulates

Hypertrophy

an increase in cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance (strength) training

Nervous Inhibition

is both psychological and physiological, Beliving that you cannot lift a weight causes lack of confidence which physiologically reduces our ability to lift

Dehydration

depletion of bodily fluids, a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance

Elasticity

Recoverable elongation of connective tissue; the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

Muscle Spindles

Fibers in muscle tissues which protect against too much stress. Bouncing stretches are not good. Slow stretch to induce tightness and hold 10-15 sec. 4 reps.

Sources of ATP production

Creatine and Glycogen

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