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Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition?

The protein RDA assumes that dietary protein is from a mix of low- and high-quality sources

Which of the following is characteristic of protein nutrition in vegetarians?

Most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at each meal

What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?

90-99

What amino acid is classified as conditionally essential when dietary intake of phenylalanine is insufficient or the body cannot normally metabolize phenylalanine?

Tyrosine

Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for

heart disease.

If a person consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2700 kcalories per day, approximately what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?

10

Which of the following is a feature of the branched-chain amino acids?

They may be helpful in treatment of advanced liver failure

When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in

positive nitrogen balance.

Which of the following is a feature of whey protein?

It is a waste product of cheese production

Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?

20

What percentage of dietary protein is hydrolyzed in the mouth?

0

What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?

Inability of the liver to synthesize lipoproteins for fat export

What is the percentage of total energy derived from protein in a diet containing 50 grams of protein and 2000 kcalories?

10

What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?

Collagen

How many grams of nitrogen are contained in a 2500-kcalorie diet that provides 15% of the energy as protein?

15

Which of the following would you not expect to see in a person with kwashiorkor?

Increased physical activity

Approximately what percentage of a person's genes are similar to that of an unrelated person?

99.9

What is the amino acid pool?

A mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake

Which of the following describes an association between protein intake and kidney function?

Restricting protein intake may slow the progression of kidney disease

Which of the following is a feature of kwashiorkor?

It is typically precipitated in the undernourished child who has an infection

Which of the following elements is found in certain amino acids?

Sulfur

Marasmus occurs most commonly in children of ages

6-18 months.

Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?

Essential amino acid balance

Which of the following is an assumption made in the formulation of the RDA for protein?

Dietary carbohydrate and fat intakes are adequate

What is the usual initial therapy for the treatment of kwashiorkor?

Fluid balance restoration

Which of the following statements is not characteristic of enzymes?

They are involved in synthesis reactions only

The study of how food interacts with genes is known as

nutrigenomics.

What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?

Tryptophan

Proteins, because they attract hydrogen ions, can act as

buffers.

What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women?

Positive

All of the following assumptions are made by the committee in setting the RDA for protein except

the fat content of the diet will be high.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of marasmus?

Affects brain development only minimally

What is a "limiting" amino acid in a protein?

An essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place

Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes are commonly known as

proteases.

Your college dormitory roommate, James, told you that he's had anemia for quite some time and that it's from having abnormally-shaped hemoglobin. What type of anemia does James have?

Sickle-cell anemia

Which of the following is a feature of homocysteine?

It is increased in the blood of coffee drinkers

All of the following are known to raise homocysteine levels except

excess arginine intake.

The conditions known as acidosis and alkalosis refer to a disruption of the body's

pH balance.

Which of the following is a feature of the protein RDA?

The recommendations are generous

At the end of your class presentation on "Protein-Energy Malnutrition," a student asks you to clarify how the rapid onset of protein-energy malnutrition occurs in kwashiorkor. How should you respond?

It is typically seen in patients who are 1-3 years old due to the sudden change in diet arising from their being weaned from breast milk after the birth of a sibling

The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as

denaturation.

What is complementary protein nutrition?

A strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids

All of the following are features of protein in nutrition except

most of the body's thousands of proteins have been studied and characterized.

The body's amino acid pool consists of

both essential and nonessential amino acids.

All of the following describe associations between protein nutrition and the body's water balance except

excessive protein losses by the kidney may lead to dehydration.

In what organ is pepsin active?

Stomach

The function of a protease is to

hydrolyze proteins.

Which of the following processes is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?

pH balance

Which of the following describes a process in protein synthesis?

The code to make a protein is carried by a strand of messenger RNA

Approximately what percentage of children worldwide have protein-energy malnutrition?

25

What is the fate of excess dietary protein?

After absorption, the extra amino acids will be rapidly degraded

Which of the following would describe the state of nitrogen balance of a person who ingested 16 g of food nitrogen and lost 19 g of nitrogen?

Negative balance

Tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells is known as

edema.

When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a

dipeptide.

After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?

Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides

What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?

Denaturation

Acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by

low weight for height.

Which of the following describes a relationship between protein intake and calcium metabolism?

Calcium excretion rises with increasing intake of animal-derived proteins

Jim, a college baseball player, tells you that he has started to take glutamine supplements. How would you advise him?

Since single amino acids do not occur naturally in foods, they offer no benefit to the body and may even be harmful

What term describes the illness a child develops when the next child is born?

Kwashiorkor

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