Chapters 3: Evolution, Species Interactions, and Biological Communities. and 4: Human Populations

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Exam 2

Which of the following is not a common strategy for successful intraspecific competition?
a) eating prey before they are "ready" (ripe) for other species
b) spreading seeds or offspring far and fast
c) producing substances that are toxic to competitors (X)
d) the life cycle of dragonflies (the larva live in the water) (X)
e) All of these are strategies for successful interspecific competition.

e) All of these are strategies for successful interspecific competition. (?)

What is the difference in the adaptation of a sled dog's (such as a Husky) thick coat of hair to help it withstand the cold temperatures of Arctic winters and a dog that adapts to cold temperatures in the fall by growing a thickened coat? The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the ____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.
a) regional; natural selection at the individual level
b) individual; physiological modifications at the population level
c) population; physiological modifications at the individual level
d) species; natural selection at the population level
e) ecosystem; physiological modifications at the individual level

c) population; physiological modifications at the individual level

Evolution occurs as a result of
a) the discovery of a desirable characteristic in a population.
b) an individual's physiological modification.
c) environmental change that forces modification in a resident species.
d) better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic.
e) a population's physiological modification.

d) better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic.

Natural selection will ultimately make a species
a) more intelligent.
b) physically bigger.
c) better adapted to its environment.
d) more aggressive.
e) less vulnerable to its predators.

c) better adapted to its environment.

Regular lawn mowing selects for short-headed rather than tall-headed dandelions because
a) tall flowers spread their seeds farther.
b) tall flowers cannot reproduce.
c) short flowers can reproduce.
d) short flowers spread their seeds farther.
d) short flowers have less competition when the lawn is mowed often.

b) tall flowers cannot reproduce.

A titmouse and a chickadee are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources. The best way to classify this interaction is as
a) mutualism.
b) intraspecific competition.
c) interspecific competition.
d) symbiosis.
e) commensalism.

c) interspecific competition.

An especially effective strategy for reducing intraspecific competition is
a) different ecological niches for juveniles and adults.
b) rapid reproduction.
c) eating prey before they are "ready" (ripe) for other species.
d) resource partitioning.
e) None of these. These are examples for reducing interspecific competition.

a) different ecological niches for juveniles and adults.

Symbiosis means
a) a relationship in which both species benefit.
b) a parasitic relationship.
c) commensalism.
d) living together.
e) a relationship in which one species benefits and the other does not benefit.

d) living together.

In the partnership of a lichen, the fungus provides _________ and the relationship is best described as _______.
a) most of the photosynthesis; symbiosis
b) poisons that deter predation; commensalism
c) structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism
d) very little to the algal partner; parasitism
e) some of the photosynthesis; commensalism

c) structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism

An organism's biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
a) that it can produce.
b) that survive to adulthood.
c) its habitat can support.
d) it produces at one time.
e) it actually produces over its lifetime.

a) that it can produce.

A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its environmental carrying capacity.
a) meets
b) overshoots
c) undershoots
d) oscillates around
e) decreases

b) overshoots

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?
a) carrying capacity geometric increase
b) irruptive growth
c) J-shaped curve
d) S-shaped curve
e) Malthusian growth

c) J-shaped curve

In a biological community where diversity is great, such as a tropical rainforest, the abundance of any one species is likely to be
a) great.
b) small.
c) widely variable from year to year.
d) the same from year to year.
e) None of these. Abundance does not depend on diversity.

b) small.

Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of
a) species in the population.
b) species at each trophic level.
c) genetic variations within a species.
d) primary producers available.
e) primary producers relative to the number of consumers.

b) species at each trophic level.

A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores, and only one carnivore, has
a) little complexity.
b) little diversity.
c) a great deal of complexity.
d) low productivity.
e) a great deal of productivity.

a) little complexity.

Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.
a) into a climax community; species replaces another
b) and replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
c) on unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
d) and then fails; niche changes
e) intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition

c) on unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another

Which of the following are pioneer species?
a) wood warblers
b) dandelions
c) starlings
d) lichens
e) humans

d) lichens

As ecological development proceeds, a biological community
a) gradually stagnates.
b) becomes more diverse.
c) goes through repeated secondary succession stages.
d) goes through repeated primary succession stages.
e) becomes less complex.

b) becomes more diverse.

A climax community is one that
a) is relatively stable and long lasting.
b) lasts forever.
c) contains oaks or white spruce.
d) is impervious to disruption.
e) is adapted to periodic disruption.

a) is relatively stable and long lasting.

___________ is the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.
a) Adaptation
b) Habitat
c) Tolerance range
d) Resource partition
e) None of these are correct.
f) Ecological niche

b) Habitat

What term describes species which arise in non-overlapping geographic regions?
a) intraspecific competition
b) interspecific competition
c) sympatric speciation
d) allopatric speciation
e) invasive species

d) allopatric speciation

Two unpalatable or dangerous species which have warning patterns or colors and appear similar are an example of _________________.
a) symbiosis
b) competitive exclusion
c) mutualism
d) Batesian mimicry
e) Mullerian mimicry

e) Mullerian mimicry

Which of the following is not generally true of k-selected species compared to r-selected
a) they have shorter generation times
b) they reach sexual maturity later
c) they have fewer young
d) they have longer life spans
e) they have slower population growth rates

a) they have shorter generation times

The most common reason that introduced species cause trouble is because they are larger than native species.
a) True
b) False

b) False

The introduction of a predator onto an island originally free from predators is likely to cause the extinction of a native species.
a) True
b) False

a) True

In general species diversity is higher near the poles than near the equator.
a) True
b) False

b) False

The world human population reached 1 billion in about
a) 1400.
b) 1500.
c) 1600.
d) 1700.
e) 1800.

e) 1800.

Historically, up until the Middle Ages, populations were mostly limited by
a) low fertility rates.
b) culturally imposed family planning practices.
c) disease, famine, and war.
d) religious restrictions on marriage.
e) infanticide.

c) disease, famine, and war.

The doubling time for a population with an annual growth rate of 0.07 is
a) 1 year.
b) 5 years.
c) 10 years.
d) 50 years.
e) 100 years.

c) 10 years.

Technological optimists argue that technological advances have
a) led to the increase in human population but whether we can continue is of great concern.
b) proven Marx wrong in his predictions of famine and disaster.
c) proven Malthus wrong in his predictions of famine and disaster.
d) been developed because there are more people, supporting the view that more people are the "ultimate resource."
e) been a neutral factor in the issue of population growth.

c) proven Malthus wrong in his predictions of famine and disaster.

Malthus and Marx
a) worked together to form their theories.
b) agreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.
c) disagreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.
d) held the same beliefs but worked on different issues.
e) disagreed about the severity of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.

c) disagreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.

According to Joel Cohen, the maximum human population that Earth can support is
a) 7-8 billion
b) 10-12 billion
c) 15-18 billion
d) 20-22 billion
e) more than 26 billion

b) 10-12 billion

The demographic transition refers to a country's change from
a) high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.
b) high to low birth rates and low to high death rates.
c) low to high birth rates and high to low death rates.
d) a majority of young people to a majority of elderly people.
e) a majority of elderly people to a majority of young people.

a) high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.

A demographic transition is expected to accompany
a) colonization, as in Africa and Asia.
b) economic development and stabilization.
c) the development of capitalism.
d) the introduction of modern medicine.
e) All of these.

b) economic development and stabilization.

Many demographers believe that birth rates generally decrease as the level of development increases because
a) raising children becomes much more expensive.
b) men are better educated and have more economic options.
c) women tend to have more influence in family planning.
d) higher levels of contaminants in drinking water tend to decrease fertility.
e) government programs tend to discourage the discussion of birth control options.

c) women tend to have more influence in family planning.

Proponents of social justice believe that environmental and social problems will decrease if
a) we can educate poor people about family planning.
b) resources are distributed fairly.
c) better ethics are taught to poor, uneducated populations.
d) we just reduce the number of people on Earth.
e) we concentrate on population control.

b) resources are distributed fairly.

Family planning means enabling people to
a) have fewer children so that the population growth rate can reach ZPG.
b) have no children.
c) have many children.
d) decide in advance how many children they should have.
e) have more children if they live in a country with a birth dearth.

d) decide in advance how many children they should have.

Which of the following is a mechanical barrier to conception?
a) abortion
b) condoms
c) birth control pills
d) vasectomies
e) IUD

b) condoms

One of the _________ effective ways to stabilize populations is to _________.
a) most; provide free contraceptives
b) least; provide free contraceptives
c) least; decrease child mortality
d) most; decrease child mortality
e) most; expect mandatory sterilization

d) most; decrease child mortality

The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life is called _____________________.
a) birth rate
b) growth rate
c) crude birth rate
d) total fertility rate
e) replacement rate

d) total fertility rate

What is the dependency ratio?
a) the number of children men support
b) the percentage of women who work outside the home
c) the amount of people that can be supported by an acre of land
d) the number of literate adults relative to the total number of adults in a population
e) the number of nonworking compared to with working individuals in a population

e) the number of nonworking compared to with working individuals in a population

Which of the following is a pronatalist pressure?
a) male pride
b) social status of large families
c) need for additional family income
d) social taboos regarding birth control
e) all of these are sources of pronatalist pressure

e) all of these are sources of pronatalist pressure

Which of the following has not played an important role in the slowed population growth rate of Iran?
a) mandatory family planning classes before marriage
b) a strictly enforced government limit on the number of children per family
c) a wide variety of free contraceptives
d) improved gender equity
e) availability of better jobs

b) a strictly enforced government limit on the number of children per family

So far, the most successful and popular solution(s) to global overpopulation has/have been mandatory sterilization.
a) True
b) False

b) False

Human population growth most closely resembles the S-shaped growth curve.
a) True
b) False

b) False

Generally speaking wealthy, developed nations have a smaller human ecological footprint than poorer, less developed nations.
a) True
b) False

b) False

A population growing at 1% per year should double in about ___ years.
a) 30
b) 70
c) 10
d) 2
e) 0.7

b) 70

In the formula I=PAT, which of the following would be representative of the 'A'?
a) Driving an SUV.
b) Earning money to support the family.
c) Having clean drinking water.
d) The number of people living in a country.

a) Driving an SUV.

Which country listed below would you expect to have the highest ecological footprint?
a) USA
b) Mexico
c) Sweden
d) Kenya

a) USA

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