Capters 7: Food and Agriculture, and 8: Environmental Health and Toxology

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Exam 4

Undernourished parents often raise children who are undernourished because the parents
a) transfer genetic deficiencies to their children.
b) do not know any better.
c) cannot afford to feed their children properly.
d) do not have access to information about nutrition.
e) All of these are reasons for the vicious cycle.

c) cannot afford to feed their children properly.

What are two common diseases that result from protein deficiencies?
a) dysentery and diarrhea
b) dysentery and scurvy
c) scurvy and pellagra
d) goiter and cretinism
e) marasmus and kwashiorkor

e) marasmus and kwashiorkor

Vitamin A deficiencies are associated with
a) anemia.
b) weak bones.
c) a lack of energy, or listlessness.
d) poorly developed neural systems in embryos.
e) dry eyes and retinal degeneration.

e) dry eyes and retinal degeneration.

Goiter is a common disease resulting from a
a) protein.
b) iodine.
c) iron.
d) vitamin A.
e) folic acid.

b) iodine.

Obesity is a disease that affects
a) poor, developing nations.
b) wealthy, developed nations
c) every nation equally.
d) nations that utilize beef and rice as major food sources.

b) wealthy, developed nations

Famines are most often serious when there is
a) a very serious drought.
b) no room to expand agriculture.
c) steady population growth.
d) drought and war together.
e) an attempt by indigenous people to return to old traditions and lands.

d) drought and war together.

What is the basis of the statement that we could feed more people if we would eat grain rather than feeding it to livestock?
a) the First Law of Thermodynamics
b) the Second Law of Thermodynamics
c) ecofeminism
d) biocentrism
e) anthropocentrism

b) the Second Law of Thermodynamics

The layer of soil that is a mixture of minerals and organic material is the
a) O horizon
b) A horizon
c) humus
d) E horizon
e) primary layer

b) A horizon

Soil organisms usually stay __________ the soil.
a) deep below the surface of
b) near the middle of
c) close to the surface of
d) spread uniformly throughout
e) About half stay close to the surface and the other half stay deep below the surface of the soil.

c) close to the surface of

The parent material layer of a soil is composed of weathered
a) humus.
b) organic detritus and roots.
c) residual aluminum and iron.
d) soil.
e) rock fragments.

e) rock fragments.

Which of the following are forms of chemical deterioration of soil?
a) salinization and acidification
b) waterlogging and laterization
c) compaction and nutrient depletion
d) pollution and waterlogging
e) water and wind erosion

a) salinization and acidification

Wind erosion is most likely to cause problems in
a) forested grazing lands on high mountains.
b) open, arid regions.
c) fertile river bottoms with annual floods.
d) agricultural regions in the far north.
e) protected, arid region.

b) open, arid regions.

Waterlogging results from
a) toxic metal accumulation.
b) excessive irrigation.
c) excessive plowing.
d) natural wind erosion processes.
e) natural water erosion processes.

b) excessive irrigation.

The energy needed to process and distribute food in the US is as much as _______ times the amount that is used to actually farm the crops.
a) 0.5
b) 2
c) 3.5
d) 5
e) 8

d) 5

High responder crops of the green revolution produce tremendous yields
a) even in severe drought conditions.
b) with primitive farming techniques and no chemical use.
c) in response to fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation.
d) in all conditions where standard crops fail.
e) in response to fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation and only "good" yields in less than ideal situations.

c) in response to fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation.

Fifty years ago, there were several hundred varieties of wheat grown in the Middle East. Now a few of the more modern high responder varieties have replaced the indigenous species. What are the implications of this change?
a) The productivity of wheat should continue to rise and increase the availability of food per person.
b) Genetic resources are diminished and an epidemic of wheat disease is highly likely due to the reliance on few species.
c) The high responder varieties will need specialized harvesting methods because they are so productive.
d) The biodiversity of wheat species has increased because of the introduction of few hybrid species.
e) All of these are correct.

b) Genetic resources are diminished and an epidemic of wheat disease is highly likely due to the reliance on few species.

Sustainable farming
a) is cheaper and safer than conventional farming.
b) is safe, although it causes weed problems.
c) uses fewer chemicals but more water than conventional methods.
d) is an invention of modern agricultural research.
e) is safer than conventional farming, but much more expensive.

a) is cheaper and safer than conventional farming.

Contour plowing and strip farming are methods designed to
a) prevent weed spreading.
b) improve plowing efficiency.
c) improve harvesting efficiency.
d) prevent water and soil loss.
e) make farms more attractive.

d) prevent water and soil loss.

The USDA estimates ______ percent of conventionally grown foods are contaminated with pesticide residue.
a) 11
b) 23
c) 34
d) 58
e) 73

e) 73

Methods of managing topography include all but which of the following?
a) terracing
b) contour plowing
c) deep tilling
d) strip-farming

c) deep tilling

Which is a disadvantage of conservation tillage methods?
a) increased irrigation requirements
b) less efficient use of fertilizer (X)
c) increased pests and weeds
d) decreased crop yields
e) none of these are correct.

c) increased pests and weeds (?)

The biggest worry about a genetically modified Atlantic salmon with extra growth hormones is that it will introduce these hormones into our diet.
a) True
b) False

b) False

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are made by taking bits of DNA from different sources to create desired characteristics in an organism.
a) True
b) False

a) True

The number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the acreage devoted to growing them has decreased in the past fifteen years because of the huge number of opponents.
a) True
b) False

b) False

You can participate in sustainable agriculture by
a) buying local produce.
b) eating lower on the food chain.
c) participating in CSAs.
d) doing all of the things listed above.

d) doing all of the things listed above.

Historically, the greatest threats to human health came from
a) carcinogenic or toxic chemicals.
b) psychological stress factors due to crowding.
c) pathogenic organisms.
d) teratogenic chemicals.
e) injuries (intentional and unintentional).

c) pathogenic organisms.

Infectious diseases such as diarrhea are closely linked to
a) emotional stress.
b) malnutrition.
c) toxicity effects.
d) the over consumption of fats.
e) All of these exacerbate infectious diseases such as diarrhea.

b) malnutrition.

Diseases such as the recent outbreak of cholera and Ebola are
a) caused by pathogenic organisms.
b) called communicable diseases.
c) called emergent diseases.
d) happening more often in the past 20 years.
e) All of these are characteristics of diseases such as cholera and Ebola.

e) All of these are characteristics of diseases such as cholera and Ebola.

The cutting of rainforests causes a lack of normal water flow into the soil. Puddles of water can stand for long periods. Which of the following statements best explains how rainforest destruction is closely tied with human morbidity and mortality?
a) The elimination of top consumers can favor disease-carrying organisms.
b) Mosquitoes with an aquatic larval form spread many highly contagious diseases.
c) The standing water is used for drinking and disease organisms in the water cause diarrhea.
d) Mice populations increase because of a higher access to water and spread many highly contagious diseases.
e) All of these explain the connection between rainforest destruction and human morbidity and mortality.

b) Mosquitoes with an aquatic larval form spread many highly contagious diseases.

Parasitic worms are very common in areas where
a) the climate is dry.
b) the climate is hot.
c) sanitation is poor.
d) urban development has been too rapid.
e) the climate is humid.

c) sanitation is poor.

Hazardous substances ______________ while toxins are ______________.
a) react with specific cell components to kill cells; poisonous substances
b) are dangerous substances; poisonous substances
c) are usually of concern at all concentrations; are dangerous substances
d) are poisonous substances; also poisonous substances
e) All of these are true.

b) are dangerous substances; poisonous substances

Toxic substances are dangerous because they
a) react or interfere with specific cell functions.
b) can physically remove or tear tissues.
c) are usually synthetic.
d) cause debilitating, parasitic diseases.
e) cause excessive water accumulation in tissues.

a) react or interfere with specific cell functions.

When comparing the toxicity of natural and synthetic chemicals, natural chemicals are ________ synthetic chemicals.
a) nearly always less toxic than
b) nearly always more toxic than
c) on average, just as toxic
d) much safer
e) more difficult to detect

c) on average, just as toxic

Among the most important characteristics of chemicals in determining their environmental risks is/are
a) solubility.
b) reactivity.
c) persistence.
d) toxicity
e) All of these are correct.

e) All of these are correct.

The biomagnification of DDT demonstrates that
a) higher trophic level organisms can concentrate toxins in a type of "inverse biological pyramid."
b) birds should not depend on fish for food.
c) DDT is easily metabolized and excreted by most organisms.
d) DDT is an extremely water-soluble material.
e) water-soluble toxins are widespread.

a) higher trophic level organisms can concentrate toxins in a type of "inverse biological pyramid."

An advantage of testing for toxicity by exposing animals to chemicals is that using animals is
a) cheaper than other methods.
b) faster than other methods.
c) usually quite humane.
d) easier than using computer models.
e) a trusted and usually reliable way to get results.

e) a trusted and usually reliable way to get results.

An LD50 is a dose of a toxic chemical that
a) is an acceptable level of risk for most individuals.
b) all individuals react to.
c) kills individuals 50 years old and over.
d) is 50 times less than the minimal dose.
e) kills half of the population.

e) kills half of the population.

Detection of toxic chemicals depends upon
a) how many chemicals are present.
b) how many individuals respond to them at a certain dosage.
c) the sensitivity of measuring techniques and how many chemicals are present.
d) whether or not individuals or groups of individuals are sensitive to them.
e) whether or not groups of individuals are sensitive to them.

c) the sensitivity of measuring techniques and how many chemicals are present.

Which of the following factors would explain the seemingly irrational behavior of a father who smokes (high risk factor for baby) throwing away his baby's teething rings that may contain phthalates (seemingly low risk factor for baby).
a) People tend to downplay risks that are associated with activities they are committed to or enjoy.
b) Most people do not understand the concepts of probability.
c) News media can give a biased view of hazards.
d) People tend to have an irrational fear of certain technologies that are not as well understood.
e) All of these factors can lead to the relatively irrational behavior demonstrated by the father.

e) All of these factors can lead to the relatively irrational behavior demonstrated by the father.

As a society, we usually focus money and attention on health risks that are
a) most serious.
b) easiest to clean up.
c) most well publicized and frightening.
d) statistically more likely to occur.
e) All of these receive equal money and attention.

c) most well publicized and frightening.

Historically, which of the following considerations in setting standards for toxic exposure has been emphasized the least?
a) Information about how toxins affect natural ecological systems.
b) Different members of the population have different sensitivities to toxins.
c) Information about both chronic and acute exposures to a toxin.
d) Individuals in the human population have been exposed to many different kinds of toxins that may have additive or synergistic effects.
e) All of these considerations have been used and are important in setting policy.

a) Information about how toxins affect natural ecological systems.

Two problems encountered in human health risk assessment are _______________________ and ___________________.
a) use of chemical mixtures; lack of knowledge about synergistic effects
b) lack of funding for federal mandates; lack of public support
c) extrapolation of data to low doses; extrapolation of data from non-human species to humans
d) lack of planning; the involvement of politics
e) There are no inherent problems in human health risk assessment.

c) extrapolation of data to low doses; extrapolation of data from non-human species to humans

With respect to exposure to toxins which statement is correct?
a) Acute effects are much worse than chronic effects.
b) Acute effects are not as bad as chronic effects.
c) Acute effects are the immediate results of a single exposure, chronic effects are those that are long-lasting.
d) Acute effects are permanent, chronic effects may be short or long term but go away over time.
e) none of these are correct.

c) Acute effects are the immediate results of a single exposure, chronic effects are those that are long-lasting.

Which of the following presents the lowest lifetime risk of death to people in the US?
a) poisonous snakes
b) dog bites
c) plane crashes
d) lightning
e) drowning

a) poisonous snakes

The EPA usually assumes an acceptable risk for environmental hazards is about 1 in
a) 100
b) 1000
c) 10,000
d) 100,000
e) 1 million

e) 1 million

SARS is thought to have been spread to 160 people in seven countries by a single flight attendant.
a) True
b) False

a) True

SARS and Ebola fever are examples of emergent diseases.
a) True
b) False

a) True

Pathogenic organisms are those that are susceptible to diseases.
a) True
b) False

b) False

Organisms are physiologically able to minimize some of the effects of toxins if
a) a minimal amount is taken into the body.
b) there is no exposure.
c) chemists develop vaccines and antibodies
d) DNA technology is used to change the individual's susceptibility.

a) a minimal amount is taken into the body.

Policy makers should utilize a(n) ____________ approach to setting environmental risk standards.
a) zero tolerance
b) precautionary
c) case-by-case
d) restrictive

b) precautionary

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