AP World History: Chapter 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

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Taika reforms

Attempt to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.

Heian

Japanese city later called Kyoto; built to escape influence of Buddhist monks.

Tale of Genji

Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.

Fujiwara

Mid-9th-century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.

Bushi

Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.

Samurai

Mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor.

Seppuku

Ritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor.

Bakufu

Military government established by the Minamoto after the Gumpei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emeror, but real power resided in military government and samurai.

Shoguns

Military leaders of the bakufu.

Hojo

A warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated the Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor.

Ashikaga Takuaji

Member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshio.

Daimyo

Warlord rulers of small states following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates.

Choson

Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by the Han in 109 BCE.

Sinification

Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions.

Silla

Korean kingdom in the Southeast; became a vassal of the Tang and paid tribute; ruled Korea from 668.

Yi

Korean dynasty (1392-1910); succeeded Koryo dynasty after Mongol invasions; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.

Trung sisters

Leaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 CE; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society.

Khmers and Chams

Indianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by Northern government at Hanoi.

Nguyen

Southern Vietnamese dynasty with capital at Hue that challenged northern Trinh dynasty with center at Hanoi.

Gempei Wars

Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.

Onin wars

struggle between rival heirs of Ashikaga sogunate, led to warfare between rival hq and kyoto and the destruction of old capital

Koguryo

Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula in 37 B.C.E.; adopted cultural sinification.

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