Western Civilization, Chapters 18-20

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The French Revolution; The Industrial Revolution and 19th Century Society; From Restoration to Revolution, 1815-1848

The storming of the Bastille.

For many people, the event that is the epitome of the French Revolution occurred on July 14, 1789

a complex series of events from 1789-1799.

"French Revolution" refers to:

as an example of the idea of "total war."

The wars Napoleon waged to build his empire may be viewed:

officeholders, professionals, merchants, and the aristocracy.

French society in the 18th century was influenced by a new, emerging group composed of:

play a critical role in articulating grievances by the French people.

The textbook states that "ideas did not cause the revolution," but they did::

Comte de Mirabeau.

By the time of the French Revolution, the line between noble and non-noble was quite blurred due to many families purchasing their titles. A good example of this change in the aristocracy is the family of a maverick noble:

the physiocrats.

Those who urged the French government to reform its economic policies were known as:

salt.

Peasants in pre-revolutionary France paid a disproportionate share of the taxes, such as the corvee and the tithe to the church, but the most onerous of these was the tax on:

the English colonists in North America in their war of independence from Great Britain.

The French financial system was brought to the brink of collapse because of Louis XVI's support of:

all of these.

Louis XVI wanted to better the lot of the French people by enacting reforms. Unfortunately, his plans were not completely successful. Among the improvements that he failed to enact was:

the Cahiers des doleances.

The list of grievances drawn up by the delegates of the three Estates were called.

France faced severe economic hardship and financial chaos.

In 1789, Louis XVI called a metting of the Estates-General, which had not met since 1614, because:

Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes

The meeting of the Estates-General was radicalized from the beginning because of the positions taken by the members of the Third Estate, and also because of the published popular views of _____, a member of the First Estate.

the Oath of the Tennis Court.

The event that marked the beginning of the French Revolution was:

Oath of the Tennis Court

When the Third Estate renamed itself the National Assembly and was locked out of the Estates-General meeting hall at Versailles, it and sympathetic members of the First and Second Estates met at another site at Versailles and swore what was known as the _____, not to separate until a constitution for France had been drafted.

a continuing economic crisis sparked by the price of bread.

The "October Days" of 1789 were caused by:

the march on Versailles by the women of Paris.

The most notable action of the "October Days" in 1789 was:

reflected the depth of discontent on the part of the French people in 1789.

The fall of the Bastille, the "Great Fear," and the "October Days" were all important because they:

broke with the past completely by abolishing the last remnants of feudalism.

On August 4, 1789, the French National Assembly:

was a moral document specifying the natural rights of human beings.

The Declaration of the Righs of Man and the Citizen:

the writer of pamphlets advancing the rights of women.

Olympe de Gouges is best known as:

the National Assembly's declaration of war against Austria and Prussia.

A declaration by some European states in 1791 that restoring the rights of the French monarchy was a matter of "common interest to all sovereigns of Europe" led to:

Edmund Burke

In the book Reflections on the Revolution in France, the English author, _____, reversed his position on the revolutions, after having supported the American revolutionaries the decade before.

the French Revolution entered the radical state of its history.

The summer of 1792 was when:

the birth of the republic.

In the French revolutionary calendar, September 22, 1792 marked:

Georges Danton

Which of the following was a member of the French Committee of Public Safety?

a fervent disciple of Rousseau's concept of "the general will."

In general, it can be stated that Maximilien Robespierre was:

The Friend of the People.

Jean Paul Marat was an early leader of the revolution and editor of the popular news sheet:

the majority of its victims were peasants and laborers.

Of the "Terror," it can be stated that:

the peasantry.

In the second stage of the French Revolution, "The Terror," between 25,000 and 30,000 French were executed; the vast majority of these were members of:

all of these.

The radical stage of the French Revolution was destructive for many reasons; among these reasons was the weakning of the traditional institution of:

the Directory.

When the Committee of Public Safety fell from power in 1794, it was replaced by a more moderate group known as:

it was the day that Napoleon was declared a "temporary consul."

The Eighteenth Brumaire is important because:

first consul.

Although the French government had been ruled by one committee or another since the revolution began in 1789, this came to an end in 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte assumed the title of:

its Egyptian and Near Eastern colonies.

In 1798, the French, under Napoleon Bonaparte's, command attempted to defeat the British by attacking:

lycees

Napoleon Bonaparte ordered the establishment of _____ in every major town to train government officials.

did not revoke the principle of religious freedom established by the revolution.

The Concordat of 1801:

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.

Napoleon's foreign minister who continued to serve the monarchy after the restoration was:

all of these.

The changes Napoleon made in French society gave rise to a new elite composed of:

requiring locals to support the French military and to serve in the army.

The French policy in Italy, referred to by the Italians as "liberty and requisitions," concenred:

the Continental System.

The economic system created by Napoleon Bonaparte to starve British trade was:

Admiral Horatio Nelson.

The naval battle in 1805 between the French and British naval forces was won by:

Borodino.

The Russian campaign of 1812 was marked by minor fighting until the Russians made a stand just outside Moscow at:

Trafalgar.

The battle that broke French naval power in the Mediterranean was fought at:

it indicated that Napoleon could be defeated on the battlefield.

The war fought in Spain was significant because:

the allies dealt the French a resounding defeat.

At the Battle of the Nations, fought near Leipzig:

Waterloo.

Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated for the last time in Belgium at the battle of:

Toussaint L'Ouverture.

The leader of the Haitian Revolution, who did not live to see independence, was:

was the only successful slave revolt in history.

The Haitian Revolution was important because it:

"nation."

One of the most important legacies of the French Revolution was the new term:

False

England was the most densely populated country in Europe by the close of the 18th century.

False

After the defeat of Napoleon, the Cognac family was restroed to the throne.

False

French society was legally divided into the Three Estates, which legally divided society into an upper (First Estate), middle (Second Estate), and lower (Third Estate) class.

True

By order of the king, the Estates-General was replaced by the National Assembly, which asserted the right to remake government in the name of the people.

True

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy demanded the clergy save France, rather than Rome.

True

Louis XVI was condemned to death not by a unanimous vote, but by a very narrow margin in the Assembly.

False

The September Massacres only killed seven prisoners, five of whom were petty criminals and two who were mentally incompetent.

False

Most victims of the "Reign of Terror" were aristocrats, nobility, or wealthy merchants and artisans.

False

In 1799, Napoleon assumed the title Pater Patrae and governed in the name of the republic.

True

According to the Napoleonic Code, fathers could imprison their children without cause.

True

In December 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I in Notre Dame in Paris.

True

One of the most important discoveries made in Napoleon's excursion to Egypt was the Rosetta Stone.

True

Napoleon was interested in rebuilding and beautifying his own country, and ordered work to be undertaken to restore the runis of Rome and to make the Prado Palace in Madrid into a museum.

False

When fighting the Russians in Moscow, Napoleon torched the city, leaving no place for the Russians to shelter.

True

The Haitian slave rebellion broke out when the National Assembly in Paris refused to seat a delegation from Saint-Domingue.

It was unplanned and affected different industries in different countries at different rates of speed.

Which statement best describes the Industrial Revolution?

a commercialized system of agriculture.

One of the most important preconditions of industrialization that was best established in Great Britain was:

the pursuit of wealth was perceived as a worthy goal in life.

One explanation for Britain's lead in the Industrial Revolution was that:

encouraged the development of a well-integrated domestic market.

Great Britain's small size in the early stages of industrialization:

John Kay.

There were many inventions that improved textile manufacturing in the 1700s, but the first of these was the "flying shuttle," which was invented by:

Richard Arkwright - water frame

Which pairing is correct?

mechanically separated the seeds from the cotton fibers.

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, the cotton gin:

clothing.

The rapid expansion of the textile industry in Great Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries had at least one unintended consequence: a revolution in:

textile mills

What did the British poet William Blake describe as "these dark satanic mills?"

realized the controversial nature of any move to regulate labor, but nevertheless passed several pieces of legislation to prohibit hiring children under the age of nine, and to limit the hours worked by those under the age of 18.

The British government, concerned with working conditions in the early 1800s, held a series of hearings and upon learning of conditions that existed in British factories:

coal.

The mining industry in England expanded rapidly with industrialization due to the increased demand for:

Thomas Newcomen.

One of the developments that hastened the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine, originally developed to remove water from mines by:

railroad locomotives.

The development of the steam engine decisively transformed the 19th century world; _____ was one of its many applications.

the construction workers who built the railways.

British "navvies" were:

steam and speed.

Even with the interconnectedness of industry, wherein an improvement in one area led to improvements in other areas, there was one dual foundation on which the rest was built; that foundation was:

government through subsidies, incentives, and direct development in Europe.

A central difference in the development of industrialization in Great Britain and the United States on the one hand, and continental Europe on the other, was the involvement of:

one of the first joint-stock investment banks.

The Credit Mobilier, founded in 1852, was:

the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.

Continental Europe lagged behind Great Britain in industrializing due primarily to:

the Credit Mobilier.

The 19th century banking revolution was accompanied by scandal; the greatest of the banks involved was the Pereire brothers' bank:

the use of military force and financial agreements.

The domination of the world by European industry was, in general, a result of:

serfs

Most of the labor force in Russia was made up of _____, who remained bound to the land and did not profit from their labor until 1861.

chemical processes and energy.

Great Britain began to lose its lead in the Industrial Revolution in the second half of the 19th century due to new industries being developed by other countries, industries such as:

agricultural

Fully one-and-a-half centuries after industrialization began in Great Britain, the largest single occupational category was that of _____ workers.

Germany, Italy, and Switzerland.

By the late 19th century, the core industrial countries of Eurpoe included:

Carl Benz and Gottleib Daimler.

The internal combustion engine was developed by:

1865.

Direct communication between the United States and Europe was not possible until:

those who produced manufactured goods and those who supplied the necessary raw materials.

By the mid 19th century, the world economy had divided into two major groups:

was responsible for the deaths of at least one million Irish.

The Great Famine of 1845-1849:

the introduction of threshing machines, a symbol of the new commercial agriculture.

Farmers and agricultural workers in England in the 1820s burned barns and haystacks under the banner of their mythical leader, Captain Swing, to protest:

the continued effects of serfdom.

One of the greatest obstacles to freely buying and selling land and the commercialization of agriculture in 19th century Europe was:

the expansion of manufacturing and mining in the areas surrounding these places.

The rapid growth of European cities such as Manchester, Birmingham, and Essen was due to:

Charles Dickens.

One consequence of the industrialization of Europe was its detrimental effect on the environment. This was first noted in its effect on air quality, as typified by Coketown, the fictional city in the novel Hard Times by:

all of these.

One of the many enviornmental changes caused by the Industrial Revolution was:

Victor Hugo.

Working people had an advocate for their plight in the writings of:

those that occurred were from the middle class itself, the sons of well-off farmers or professionals.

In the 19th century, middle-class success stories were mostly a myth since:

self-help.

Samuel Smiles is most well known for advancing the middle-class ethic of:

hard work, character, and financial independence.

Middle-class "respectability" required:

values.

In 19th century society, the "middle class" was unified by similar or common:

middle-class women of Victorian England.

The "angel in the house" referred to:

Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

The Victorian attitude toward gender roles is best summarized by the lines "Man for the field and woman for the hearth; man for the sword and she for the needle... All else is confusion." was written by:

George Sand

The French novelist _____ scandalized society by dressing like a man, smoking cigars, and writing about independent women who thwarted convention and unhappy marriages.

embodied the traits important to the middle class, whose habits of mind we now call Victorian.

Queen Victoria of England ascended to the throne in 1837 and became one of the country's most successful monarchs, in no small measure because she:

lack of sexual feeling, or passionlessness.

Many 19th century doctors and scientists attributed women's supposed moral superiority to their:

skills, wages and gender.

What determined the division of the working class into subgroups?

conditioned by poverty and the absence of privacy.

The sexuality of working-class women was:

150

An average house in the United States today contains approximately 1,500 to 2,000 square feet. In Leeds, England, in the 1840s, an average house contained _____ square feet for an entire family.

the degeneration of social controls present in villages but missing in urban centers.

Illegitimacy in pre-industrial Europe was in the very low single digits but rose significantly - to 25 and 33 percent in some countries - following industrialization. A primary cause of this was:

mines.

Children commonly worked from a very young age; most in Britain worked in:

class.

As a result of the Industrial Revolution, people of the 19th century viewed one another through the lens of:

All of these.

The Industrial Revolution caused changes in which of the following areas?

True

The Industrial Revolution lead to the development of a great many capital-intensive enterprises, new ways of organizing people's labor, and the rapid growth of cities.

True

Of all the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, perhaps the most revolutionary was in the new forms of energy that were discovered.

True

The Industrial Revolution intensified human labor much more often than it eased it.

True

Britain's cotton industry was a direct result of the tariffs protecting the British wool industry, which prohibited imports of Indian cottons.

False

While the spinning mule could make two- to three-hundred times as much thread as a hand spinner could, the quality of the new thread was weaker and thicker.

False

Only after a series of factory acts was the employment of children in mines and mills under the age of 18 made illegal.

False

The first modern railway connected Stockton to Manchester to transport coal from the mines.

True

Railways were constructed almost entirely without aid of machinery.

True

In 1860, the largest single occupational category in Great Britain was the agricultural labor.

True

Most prostitutes were women who were trying to manage during a period of unemployment, rather than professional sex workers.

True

Balzac believed the changes of the French Revolution and industrialization had merely replaced an old aristocracy with a new one: a materialistic middle class.

False

Wealth had the cenral role in forming a middle-class identity.

True

Middle-class leisure included concerts, parks, bathing spots, museums, and even department stores.

True

The new innovation of apartment living in Paris meant the rich and the poor would often inhabit the same building.

False

While the housing in the cities did not allow for gardens, families were able to gain access to good, cheap food at city markets , thanks to the increasingly inexpensive transportation systems.

Tsar Alexander I

In the years following the Napoleonic Wars, who fashioned himself as the "liberator" of Europe?

Prince Klemens von Metternich.

Although many nations participated in the Congress of Vienna, the guiding hand was attached to:

the principle of legitimacy.

The principal idea that guided the Congres of Vienna was:

became an independent kingdom under tsarist control.

After 1815, Poland:

was another name for the alliance signed by Austria, Prussia, Britain, and Russia.

The "Concert of Europe":

in suppressing revolution.

The Troppau Memorandum, which was signed by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, called upon the signatories to aid one another:

Austria, Russia, and Prussia.

Some members of the Concert of Europe which allied themselves in the Holy Alliance were:

the Monroe Doctrine.

The revolutions in South Amercia were aided in 1823 when the United States issued:

initiated by an elite corps of Russian army officers.

The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 was:

Constantine.

The military officers who carried out the Decembrist Revolt in Russia upon the death of Alexander I wanted his brother, _____, rather than Nicholas as Tsar.

pitted various Greek groups against the Ottoman Turks.

The Greek war of independence.

all of these.

A moder ideology that was first articulated in the 19th century following the defeat of Napoleon was:

the plight of the agricultural laborers.

Nineteenth-century liberals were least concerned with:

liberals.

The writings of the 17th century political philosopher, John Locke, formed the basis for English:

the monarchy.

The basis of 19th century conservatism was a belief in political stability which the conservatives thought would be guaranteed by:

Jeremy Bentham.

One of the most influential British liberals and author of The Principles of Morals and Legislation was:

expanding the franchise.

A distinction may be drawn between liberals and republicans on the issue of:

New Lanark, Scotland.

The utopian socialist Robert Owen put his beliefs into practice in his cotton factory in:

gave an empirical report describing the misery of British factory workers.

In The Condition of the Working Class in England, Friedrich Engels:

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