Psychology Final

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Attribution theory was designed to account for

how people explain others' behavior.

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in their town. This best illustrates

in-group bias

Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.

informational social influence; normative social influence

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the

just-world-phenomenon

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates:

mere exposure effect

Which of the following would be most consistent with a GRIT strategy?

nnouncing that defense expenditures will be cut by 5 percent and inviting the enemy to do likewise

Most people are likely to be suprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because:

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to: Question 8 answers

personality traits

Two classmates ask you to spend a couple of hours helping them prepare for a chemistry test. According to social exchange theory, you would be most likely to help them if: Question 9 answers

you know you would feel terribly guilty for refusing their request.

Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among ________ in cultures that value ________

men; individualism

According to the ____________ effect, if you were walking out of the grocery store and slipped on the sidewalk you should expect more help if only one or two people were around than if 5 or 6 people were there.

Bystander

Fred did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Fred did poorly because:

he is unmotivated to do well in school

A social trap is a situation in which:

the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm

People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ one another and the members of their ingroup as ________ one another.

similar to; different from

Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Solomon Asch's studies of conformity? (the line study)

All of the above are correct.

It was found that in Houston, Texas, as the temperature increased, so did homicides. What principle does this support?

Frustration-agression principle

Zimbardo's study was ended early because

The prisoners developed apathy and depression

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of

self-disclosure

We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel _______ sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally _______.

a great; disapprove

When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is John most likely experiencing?

alarm reaction

Who is the best example of a Type A personality?

Philip, a competitive, hard-driving corporation president

As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.

?

Hans Selye discovered that stressors cause the adrenal cortex to ________ in size, and the thymus gland to ________ in size.

increase; decrease

Nicotine triggers a(n) ________ in anxiety and a(n) ________ in mental alertness.

?

A loss of perceived control tends to result in:

all of the above are correct

The inner part of the adrenal gland releases _____ and the outer part of the adrenal gland releases _______.

?

Homeopathy and acupuncture are forms of: Question 8 answers

alternative medicine.

Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

Phase 2

A psychophysiological illness is a(n):

illness that is not caused by a physical disorder but instead seems linked to stress.

Cassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside", This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.

?

Which of the following is an example of biofeedback?

?

During an emergency, increasing levels of emotional arousal are likely to be accompanied by:

?

he level of arousal typically associated with optimal performance tends to be ________ on tasks that are ________.

?

In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that:

?

Which brain area is linked to fear learning?

Amygdala

Philip's physician prescribes a stress management program to help Philip control his headaches. The physician has apparently diagnosed Philip's condition as a ________ illness, rather than a physical disorder.

psychophysiological

Compared to men, women are immunologically ________ and they are ________ susceptible to lupus and multiple sclerosis.

stronger; more

A health psychologist would be most likely to conduct research assessing the relationship between

?

In 1900,______ was the major cause of death in the United States. Today, the major threat to life results from _______.

tuberculosis; heart disease

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.

adequate clothing; self-esteem

Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:

achievement motivation.

The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of:

hunger

Your psychological feeling of hunger is regulated by one little part of the brain called the __________. It is the same part that helps regulate your sexual libido. See, food and sex are related

Hypothalamus

Which of the following are not one of the four stages of sex, according to Masters and Johnson?

Refractory Period

What psychological phenomenon occurs when glucose levels are low in our bloodstream?

Hunger

Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time.

?

Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs.

affiliation

The level of serotonin in the brain is:

increased by a diet high in carbohydrates.

After studying artists who would spend hour after hour painting or sculpting with enormous concentration, Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of

flow.

Which of the following is currently true regarding first-year college students' opinions of casual sex?

?

If you are feeling full, chances are this hormone is circulating through your brain

Leptin

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the __________ needs are at the bottom and need to be fulfilled first before the upper ____________ psychological ones.

?

In an attempt to lose some of the weight she has gained from binge eating, Melissa tries to compensate by using laxatives and exercising until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

bulimia nervosa

The secretion of ghrelin ________ appetite, and the secretion of PYY ________ appetite

stimulates; suppresses

A need refers to

?

Increases in the hormone insulin lead to:

decreasing blood glucose levels

Which of the following words must be avoided when you are working on achieving your goals?

more than 1 answer is correct

In one's body, what is the body 's base rate of energy expenditure called?

Basal metabolic rate

Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the ?________-lesion? cage, while the underweight rat goes in the ?________-lesion? cage.

?

Bio-psychosocial

assumes that biological, sociocultural and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.

Axis I

primary classification

Axis II

personality disorders

Axis III

General Medical Conditions

Axis IV

Psychosocial Stressors

Axis V

Level of Functioning (0-100)(0-least amount of function, 100-most amount of function)

Rosennan Study

wanted to know how people with psychological disorders are viewed and once they are labled, how easy is it to remove the label

labeling psychological disorders

critics of the DSM-IV argue that labels may stigmatize individuals

Neurotic Disorder (term that is seldom used)

usually distressing but still allows one to think rationally and function socially

Psychotic Disorder

person loses contact with reality. experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

Anxiety Disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD); Panic Disorder (PD); Phobias; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Anxiety Disorder

Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety; ex. motor tension, hyper activity, apprehensive expectations and thoughts

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

consists of persistent anxiety for at least a month; individual is unable to specify the reason for the anxiety

Panic Disorder

intense dread and terror with chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations; ex. panic attacks

Phobia

persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. we know what we fear

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away (obsession) and /or urges to perform repetitive behaviors to prevent anxiety (compulsion)

PET scan of brain with OCD

high activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder. Only about 10% of women and 20% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD

PTSD Symptoms

1. haunting memories 2. nightmares 3. social withdrawal 4. jumpy anxiety 5. sleep problems

Dietary Influences

Deficiencies- vitamin b, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamin d. rule out Allergies. eat a high protein, low carb, sugar-free diet.

Fluctuating states promote

(serotonin) Anxiety, rage, agitation, inability to concentrate, abrupt sleep disturances.

Steady low states promote

(serotonin) depression, apathy, lethargy, decreased memory, loss of interest in life, chronic insomnia.

Somatoform Disorders

hypochondriasis,conversion disorders (body)- glove anesthesia, Psychological symptoms take a physical form. even though no physical causes can be found.

Hypochondrasis

individual has a pervasive fear of illness and disease.

Conversion Disorder

individual experiences specific physical symptoms even though no pshycological problems can be found.

Mood Disorders (affect disorders)

Major Depressive Disorder (unipolar),Bipolar Disorder, Dysthymia (unipolar), Manic Disorder, Cyclothymia (Bipolar)

Explaining mood disorders

characterized by emotional extremes

Major Depressive Disorder

experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest.

Dysthymia

generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder

Manic Disorder

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Bipolar Disorder

alternating between depression and the overexcited state of mania; manic depressive disorder

Cyclothymia

mood swings from depression and mania, but less severe; tends to be more chronic than acute

Deficiencies

folic acid(serotonin production), cobalamill(B12), vitamin C(subscurvy), vitamin A

scurvy

vitamin c deficiency

Zinc deficiency

anorexia, loss of smell,taste and hearing, low libido, fatigue

dissociative disorder

dissociative identity disorder, MPD(multiple personality disorders), involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity, rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia

disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate emotions and actions, odd communication, abnormal motor behavior, social withdrawal

delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution of gradeu

hallucinations

sensory experiences without sensory stimulation

Subtypes or Schizophrenia

paranoid, disorganized, catotonic, undifferentiated, residual

paranoid

preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations often with the themes of persecution or gradiosity

disorganized

disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion

catotonic

immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism and/or parrot-like repeating of another's speech or movements

undifferentiated

many and varied symptoms

residual

withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared

Viral infection

schisophrenia has also been observed in individuals who contracted a viral infection (flu) during the middle of their fetal development

Genetic factors

the likelihood of an individual suffering from schizophrenia is 50% if their identical twin has the disease.

Psychological

psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual is genetically predisposed

personality disorders

anxiety, eccentric, dramatic or impulsive, anti-social.

anxiety

avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive

Eccentric

schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal

Dramatic or Impulsive

histrionic, narcissistic, boderline

Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)

lacks a conscience, little regret over their crimes, genetic predisposition to lack of fear interacting with social environment, formerly

biological markers of APD

youngsters, before committing a crime, respond with lower levels of stress hormones than others do at their age. PET scans of 41 murders revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up study, repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe activity.

Rates of Psychological Disorders

Alcohol Abuse- 5.2%; Generalized anxiety- 4.0%

Who see's a therapist?

education levels-higher, medical insurance- with, gender-female, disorder

therapies

psychoanalysis, humanistic, behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, biomedical, family and group

Psychotherapy

an interaction between a therapist and someone who has psychological difficulties

eclectic approach

depends on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

psychoanalysis

goal:discover unresolved unconscious conflicts. interpretations of the patient's repressed feelings: patient gains self-insight, rapidly decreased in recent years. methods: free associations, resistances, dreams and transferences. resistance: blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. transference: the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships

humanistic therapy (HT)

client centered therapy. developed by Carl Rogers

HT goal

restructure self-concept to better correspond to reality

HT techniques

active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment. listener echoes, restates, and clarifies

behavior therapy (BT) goals

unlearning maladaptive behavior and learning adaptive ones

BT

applies learning principals to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

BT counter-conditioning

condition new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. classical conditioning-systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning

Aversive Conditioning

counter-conditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior. nausea===>alcohol

exposure therapy

exposing people to the things they fear and avoid

systematic desensitization

associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. used to threat phobias

token economy

operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. patient exchanges token for desired behavior.

cognitive theory (CT)

most common theory. goal: teach people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting

Cognitive-behavioral therapy

combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavioral therapy (changing behavior)

Group and Family therapies

treats family as a system. views an individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members

evaluating psychotherapies

regression toward the mean; extremes fall back toward their average, people may get better with time, not therapy.

who do people turn to for help with psychological difficulties?

physicians-41.6%, mental health specialist-38.6%, other professionals-19.8%

which therapy would be most effective for treating a particular problem?

depression-behavior, cognition, interpersonal; anxiety-cognition, exposure, stress, inoculation; Bulimia-cognitive-behavior; Phobia-behavior; Bed Wetting-behavior, modification

therapy providers

psychologists, social workers, counselors, psychiatrists, physicians

biomedical therapies

psycho-pharmacology-study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior. Electroconvulsive therapy- unilateral or bilateral shock to the brain

anti-anxiety

depress CNS activity, valium, xanax, ativan, buspar, reduces norepinephrine levels

anti-psychotic

first generation-thorazine, mellaril, haldol-tardive dyskinesia. new generation- clozapine, risperdal, zyprexa

anti-depressants

tricyclics- evail, tofranil. mao inhibitors (MAOIs)- Naidil. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)- prozac, paxil, zoloft

mood stabilities

lithium-for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders. Pepakote- treats manic episodes (originally for epilepsy)

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain. unilateral or bilateral.

rTMS

repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, sends magnetic waves to the cortical surface of the brain.

personality

one's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Psychoanalytic theory

freud

Humanism

Maslow and Rogers

Psychoanalytic perspective

childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations. psychoanalysis-unconscious motives and conflicts shape personality

free association

explores the unconscious. person says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

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