TWIP Chapter 1 Vocab

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Chapter 1 The World and Its People Vocabulary

geography

the study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and products.

landforms

natural features of the earth's surface

environment

all of the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things.

GPS

global positioning system

GIS

Geographic Information System

artifact

an object made by someone in the past

fossils

the perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal

solar system

the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it in its gravitational field

orbit

the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another

atmosphere

the mass of air surrounding the Earth

axis

an imaginery line that runs through the Earth's center connecting the two poles

revolution

a single complete turn of the Earth around the sun

leap year

a year in which an extra day is added to the calendar

summer solstice

June 21, when the sun is at its northernmost point

winter solstice

December 22, when the sun is at its southernmost point

equinox

either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length

core

the central part of the Earth

mantle

the layer of the earth between the crust and the core

magma

molten rock in the earth's crust

crust

the outer layer of the Earth

continents

One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

plate tectonics theory

Theory that great slabs or plates of Earth's outer layer float on a hot, semi-molten mantle. All plates are moving slowly and have rafted continents to new positions over time.

earthquake

shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity

tsunamis

A giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor

faults

cracks in the earth's crust

weathering

The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.

erosion

condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind

glaciers

huge sheets of ice

elevation

height above or below sea level

plains

large pieces of flat land.

plateaus

Large area of high flat or gently rolling land

isthmus

a relatively narrow strip of land (with water on both sides) connecting two larger land areas

peninsula

land surrounded by water on three sides

island

a land mass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water

continental shelf

the gently sloping part of a continent that is under water and rings each continent

trenches

a V-shaped valley on the ocean floor

strait

a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water

channel

a deep and relatively narrow body of water (as in a river or a harbor or a strait linking two larger bodies) that allows the best passage for vessels

delta

a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water

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