What are the four Middle Colonies?
New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania
How and why did the Middle Colonies produce so many extra crops for sale?
Middle Colonies had fertile soil and a long growing season, perfect for growing a surplus of crops.
What were the major industries in the Middle Colonies?
Cash crop farming, shipping and trade, and manufacturing goods.
What was the Middle Colonies' involvement in the slave trade?
Slave labor was used in the Middle Colonies and merchants participated in the transport of slaves.
What was the nickname for the Middle Colonies and why were they called this?
The Middle Colonies were known as the Breadbasket colonies because of the abundance of grains and oats grown in the region.
What is the backcountry?
The western region of the colonies, running along the Appalachian Mountains.
What is a surplus?
An excess of crops grown for sale.
Who were the Quakers?
The group of settlers who came to Pennsylvania. They believed in religious tolerance and were pacifists.
Who was William Penn?
The founder of Pennsylvania
What is a pacifist?
A person who believes it is best to avoid war, preferring peaceful negations
Name the various groups of people who settled in the Middle Colonies.
English, Dutch, Swedish, Irish, Scottish, and German colonists and African slaves.
What is an Indentured Servant?
A person who comes to the British colonies after signing a contract to work for a wealthy farmer for a set number of years (usually 4-7) in exchange for the farmer paying the passage across the Atlantic Ocean.
How many indentured servants were there in British America?
What was redemptioneering?
A form of unfree labor used in the Middle Colonies. Potential servants signed a contract to work as a laborer after they arrived in British America, borrowing money from the ship's captain to pay for the passage across America.
What particular group came to British America as a redemptioner?
What is the main difference between indentured servants and redemptioners?
Indentured servants signed a labor contract before leaving England, while redemptioners signed a labor contract after arriving in British America.
What are the 5 Southern colonies?
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Where was the Tidewater region located?
The eastern region in the Southern colonies along the coastal areas.
Where was the Piedmont region located?
The western region in the Southern colonies, located between the Tidewater boundary and the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.
What were the major crops in the Tidewater region?
Rice and Indigo
Describe the Tidewater region.
It was an area of lowland along the costal regions of the Southern colonies. The soil was EXTREMELY fertile and was favored by large plantation owners.
What were the major crops in the Piedmont region?
Tobacco and Wheat (especially in Virginia)
Describe the Piedmont region.
The Piedmont was typically hilly land covered with dense forests. The soil was rich, but not as fertile as the Tidewater.
What was the economy based upon in the Southern Colonies?
Agriculture and farming-related business
What were the major crops in the Southern Colonies?
Tobacco, Rice, Indigo, Wheat, and Cattle
Where was the Chesapeake region?
The northern part of the Southern Colonies. The Chesapeake included Maryland, Virginia, and northern parts of North Carolina.
Where was the Lowcountry region?
The southern part of the Southern Colonies. The Lowcountry included South Carolina, Georgia, and southern parts of North Carolina.
What crops were grown in the Chesapeake?
Tobacco and wheat in Virginia
What crops were grown in the Lowcountry?
Rice and indigo
What is a planter?
A wealthy farmer in the South. They were members of the aristocracy and typically owned large plantations.
What is a Yeoman farmer?
A small farmer.
A privileged class
Why was survival difficult in the Southern colonies?
Colonists faced disease, starvation, Native American attacks, and natural disasters.
What was the major reason why colonial Southerns turned to African slave labor?
The population in the Southern colonies grew very slowly, causing a persistent labor shortage and an increased reliance on the use of African slaves.
What is hereditary slavery?
A system of slavery based on birth. Instead of just being sold into slavery, people could be born as a slave.
How many African slaves were imported to British America?
Who was James Oglethorpe?
The founder of Georgia
Why was Georgia founded?
Georgia was founded as a penal colony - a place where people could go to escape going to debtors prison - and as a buffer colony - to keep the Spanish in Florida.
Who was Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)?
The founder of Maryland. He died before he could see Maryland founded, so his son, Cecil Calvert, oversaw the settlement of the new colony.
Why was Maryland founded?
Maryland was founded for religious freedom for the Catholics of England.
What is the gang-system of labor? Where was it used?
Slaves were organized into gangs, where gang members had to keep up with their leader, the pace being set by one or two key laborers. This was common in the Chesapeake region.
What is the task system of labor? Where was it used?
In the task system, slaves were assigned by their masters a certain amount of work, or a "task", to complete for the day or perhaps the week. This was common in the Lowcountry.
How were slaves' work routines different in each region in the South? Why?
In the Chesapeake, slaves often worked on small or medium sized family farms. Furthermore, tobacco production was not particularly difficult, fast-paced or intense, so slaves were rarely worked to exhaustion. Because of this, slaves were generally responsible for working 1.5-2 acres of land. In contrast, most slaves in the Lowcountry worked on large plantations. Rice production was often grueling and fast-paced labor, so slaves were typically only responsible for 1/4 an acre of land.
Which region had stronger African cultural traditions? Why?
The Lowcountry because slaves typically had less interaction with whites than their Chesapeake counterparts. Additionally, slaves were working on large plantations with many other African slaves.
Which region had a healthier, more American-born slave population? Why?
The Chesapeake because slaves had a more varied and nutritious diet, allowing the population to grow naturally.
What was mercantilism?
An economic theory followed by England during the 1600 and 1700s that argued that the more gold, trade, and military power a nation had, the stronger it would become. Creating colonies and establishing trade with them was a major part of this theory, since colonies could exist for the benefit of the Mother Country.
Gold + Trade = Power
What were the Navigation Acts?
A set of laws passed by the English Parliament that governed trade between England and the colonies. These laws forbade the colonies from trading with any other country besides England.
What is Triangular Trade?
The transatlantic trade between the 13 English colonies, Africa, and the West Indies in slaves, gold, rum, molasses, and other goods.
What was the Transatlantic Trade?
Trade between England and the 13 colonies. The colonies exported cod, wheat, tobacco, rice, and lumber to England, and, in exchange, England exported manufactured products to the colonies.
What is intercolonial trade?
Trade between the 13 British colonies, connecting the colonies and contributing to a growing sense of an "American identity."
Define Charter colonies.
A colony where the King granted a charter to the colonial government establishing the rules under which the colony was to be governed.
Define Proprietary colony.
A colony where the charter is owned by one or more individuals.
Define Royal colony.
A colony where the charter is owned by the monarch.
What was the Great Awakening?
A religious revival movement in the 13 colonies that spread the idea that all men are equal in God's eyes.
What event sparked the Great Awakening?
Jonathan Edward's sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
What was the Enlightenment?
An intellectual movement in Europe that based knowledge on science, reason, and logic.
What were the major reasons for European exploration?
God, Glory, and Gold
What was the Columbia Exchange?
The exchange of crops, people, and diseases between the New World and Europe.
Why is 1607 significant?
Jamestown was founded in 1607, becoming the first permanent English settlement in the New World.
Why was Jamestown founded?
Gold and Glory
Who was John Rolf?
John Rolf introduced tobacco farming to Jamestown. Tobacco became a major cash crop grown in the colonies.
What was the first example of representative government in British America?
The Virginia House of Burgesses, founded in 1619.
What happened in 1620?
The Pilgrims arrived in Cape Cod, off the coast of Plimoth.
Describe the Pilgrims journey on the Mayflower.
The journey was difficult and dangerous.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
An agreement signed by the men on the Mayflower stating the intention to start a government upon landing at Plymouth.
What was the first year like in Plymouth?
About 50% of the settlers died in the first year from disease and starvation. Then, with the help of local Native Americans, were able to begin planting crops.
Who was Thomas Hooker?
The founder of Connecticut.
What were the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?
The first constitution in the 13 British colonies.
Who was Roger Williams?
Roger Williams was a Puritan minister who co-founded Rhode Island with Anne Hutchinson. He believed in a separation between church and state, meaning the church should not run the government, and in religious freedom.