Ch: 11 Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea

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Borrelia, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochete similar to the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema. Both bacteria __________.

A. have axial filaments
B. have flagella
C. are gram-positive
D. make endospores

have axial filaments

Which of the following statements concerning Pseudomonas is true?

A. The bacteria are gram-positive.
B. The bacteria produce endospores.
C. The bacteria can metabolize a wide variety of substrates.
D. This genus does not contain any pathogens.

The bacteria can metabolize a wide variety of substrates.

Enterics are __________.

A. strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria that always cause disease
B. gram-positive bacteria found in humans
C. strictly aerobic bacteria
D. gram-negative facultative anaerobes that are found in the intestines of animals

gram-negative facultative anaerobes that are found in the intestines of animals

Which type of organism might be found growing near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor?

A. halophilic
B. osmophilic
C. hyperthermophilic
D. acidophilic

hyperthermophilic

Erwinia bacteria produce an enzyme that breaks down pectin. You would expect Erwinia to cause diseases in which type of organism?

A. plants
B. other bacteria
C. insects
D. humans

plants

Which of the following organisms produce endospores?

A. Salmonella species
B. Bacillus species
C. Escherichia species

Bacillus species

Rickettsias are different from most other bacteria in that they __________.

A. are gram-positive
B. lack cell walls
C. require other bacteria to help them reproduce
D. are obligate intracellular parasites

are obligate intracellular parasites

Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?

A. Helicobacter
B. Treponema
C. Leptospira
D. Borrelia

WHY?

Helicobacter is an epsilonproteobacteria.

Treponema, Borrellia and Leptospira are spirochaetes

Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?

A. Salmonella
B. Vibrio
C. Klebsiella
D. Serratia

WHY?

Vibrio are vibrionales

Salmonella, Klebsiella and Serratiaare enterobactriales

Which organism is an obligate anaerobe?

A. Clostridium perfringens
B. Staphylococcus aureus
C. Escherichia coli
D. Bacillus anthracis

Clostridium perfringens

Which of the following statements concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis is true?

A. It grows very quickly.
B. It lacks a cell wall.
C. It is very sensitive to environmental stresses, such as drying.
D. It is aerobic.

It is aerobic

How many different bacterial species have been described?

A. 5000
B. 20,000
C. 50,000
D. 100,000

5000

Which member of the gammaproteobacteria is a potential cause of pneumonia and can be found in warm-water supply lines and air conditioning cooling towers?

A. Coxiella
B. Salmonella
C. Legionella
D. Mycoplasma
E. Klebsiella

Legionella

A new microorganism has been discovered that resides in the mouth of dogs. This microorganism lacks a nucleus, has a cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane of lipolysaccharide, is shaped like a corkscrew, and is motile by means of an axial filament. This organism is most likely related to ________.

A. Alphaproteobacteria
B. Spirochaetales
C. Actinobacteria
D. Pseudomonadales

Spirochaetales

Which of the following bacteria is incorrectly matched with gram reaction and morphology?

A. Staphylococcus; gram-positive coccus
B. Salmonella; gram-negative rod
C. Neisseria; gram-positive coccus
D. Bacillus; gram-positive rod

Neisseria; gram-positive coccus

Which is not true of the rickettsias?

A. They are classified as alpha-proteobacteria.
B. They reproduce by fragmentation.
C. They are typically transmitted by insects and ticks.
D. They can cause human diseases often characterized by a rash.
E. They are obligate intracellular parasites.

They reproduce by fragmentation

A bacterium isolated from the soil has the following characteristics: gram-negative straight rod, aerobic, motile, produces water-soluble pigment, readily grows on several common laboratory media. Ribosomal RNA analysis places this bacterium with the gammaproteobacteria. This organism is most likely in the genus ________.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella

Pseudomonas

All of these statements are true of the genus Mycoplasma except ________.

A. they may produce filaments that resemble fungi
B. they are obligate intracellular pathogens
C. they are unusually small bacteria
D. they are highly pleomorphic
E. they are genetically related to gram-positive bacteria

they are obligate intracellular pathogens

Which of these bacteria is not associated with foodborne illness?

A. Staphylococcus aureus
B. Shigella
C. Salmonella
D. Erwinia

Erwinia

Which of these bacteria is not in the phylum Actinobacteria?

A. Corynebacterium
B. Bacillus
C. Mycobacterium

WHAT IS IT?

Bacillus

It is a Firmicute

Which of the following is an example of a helical bacterium that does not make a complete twist?

A. Treponema
B. Helicobacter
C. Yersinia
D. Serratia
E. Klebsiella

Helicobacter

Which of the following is an endospore-forming bacterium?

A. Nocardia
B. Clostridium
C. Corynebacterium

Clostridium

All of the following can form filaments except ________.

A. Nocardia
B. Mycoplasma
C. Borrelia

Borrelia

True/False

Mycobacteria are acid-fast.

True

True/False

Legionella, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Enterobacter are in the same class of proteobacteria.

True

The largest taxonomic group (phylum) of bacteria is the __________, which includes most of the gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic bacteria.

proteobacteria

The mycoplasmas appear to have evolved from gram-positive bacteria that have lost the genes that encode enzymes for peptidoglycan production. This evolutionary loss of genetic material is known as __________. (2 words)

degenerative evolution

Members of the order Enterobacteriales are commonly referred to as the __________.

enterics

Members of the phylum Proteobacteria are:

A. gram-negative
B. gram-positive

gram-negative

Pseudomonadales, Legionellales, Vibrionales, Enterobacteriales, and Pasteurellales are classified as

A. Gammaproteobacteria
B. Betaproteobacteria
C. Epsilonproteobacteria
D. Actinobacteria

gammaproteobacteria

True/False

Low G+C gram positive bacteria include common soil bacteria, the lactic acid bacteria, and several human pathogens.

True

True/False

High G+C gram-positive bacteria include mycobacteria, corynebacteria, and nocardia

True

What is the largest taxonomic group of bacteria?

Proteobacteria

Proteobacteria are seperated into how many class?

Name the classes.

Hint 1: Classes designated by greek letters
Hint 2: B.A.D.G.E.

Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria

Name three Alphaproteobacteria?

Hint 1: BrB
Hint 2: The three alpha dogs are Bart, Rick and Bruce

Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella

Define prosthecae

a protrusion such as stalks or buds.

Three important factors of alphaproteobacteria.

1. Grows at very low levels of nutrients.
2. Capable of producing nitrogen fixation
3. Some have prosthecae

How is Rickettsia transmitted to humans?

A. fecal matter
B. bites of insects and ticks
C. Aerosols or contaminated milk
D. blood-borne

transmitted to humans by bites of insects and ticks.

Which is transmitted by rat fleas

A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Rickettsia typhi
C. Rickettsia rickettsii

Rickettsia typhi

Which is transmitted by ticks

A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Rickettsia typhi
C. Rickettsia rickettsii

Rickettsia rickettsii

Which is transmitted by lice

A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Rickettsia typhi
C. Rickettsia rickettsii

Rickettsia prowazekii

Rickettsias are:

A. gram-positve rod shaped bacteria
B. gram-negative rod shaped bacteria
C. gram-positive spherical shaped bacteria
D. gram-negative spherical shaped bacteria

gram-negative rod shaped bacteria

After enter the host cell, Rickettsia repoduces through ____ (2 words)

Hint1: how do prokaryotic cells reproduce

Binary fission

Rickettsia enters the host cell through ____

Hint 1: AkA eating or devouring a cell

phagocytosis

Rickettsial infections damage the permeability of ______, which results in a spotted _____

capillaries, rash

What is the gram-negative bacillus that causes cat-scratch disease.

Bartonella henselae

Name that microbe:

1. obligated parasite of mammals and cause the disease Brucellosis.
2. small nonmotile coccobacilli
3. survives phagocytosis
4. Alphaproteobacteria

Hint 1: Answer is in the name of the disease

Brucella

Name that microbe:

1. Alphaproteobacteria
2. gram-negative rod shaped/ coccobacilli
3. transmitted to humans by bites of insects/ticks

Rickettsia

Which class often uses nutrient substances that diffuse away from areas of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter.

A. Gammaproteobacteria
B. Betaproteobacteria
C. Epsilonproteobacteria
D. Actinobacteria

Betaproteobacteria

Name two Betaproteobacteria

Hint 1: Your niece is bored

Neisseria and Bordetella

Name that microbe

1. nonmotile and aerobic
2. betaproteobacteria
3. cause of whooping cough
4. gram-negative rod shaped

Bordetela

Name that microbe

1. Inhabits the mucous membrane of mammals
2. gram-negative cocci
3. causes gonorrhoea and meningitis

Neisseria

Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?

A. Rickettsia
B. Bordetella
C. Brucella
D. Bartonella

WHY?

Bordetella is a betaproteobacterai

Rickettsia, Brucella, and Bartonella are Alphaproteobacteria

What is the largest subgroup of the proteobacteria?

A. Gammaproteobacteria
B. Betaproteobacteria
C. Epsilonproteobacteria
D. Actinobacteria

Gammaproteobacteria

True/False

Mycobacterium can grow at refrigerator temperatures. This characteristic, combined with their ability to utilize proteins and lipids, make them an important contributor to food spoilage.

If false, what genus is this and what class do they belong to?

False, pseudomonads and gammaproteobacteria

In weakened hosts, this organism can ifect the urinary tract, burns, and wounds, and can cause blood infections, abcesses, and meningitis.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella

Pseudomonas

Are capable of growth in some antisepctics making it responsible for nosocomial infections.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella

Pseudomonas

Coxiella is most commonly transmitted through

A. fecal matter
B. bites of insects and ticks
C. Aerosols or contaminated milk

Aerosols or contaminated milk

Has an ability to survive and reproduce within aquatic amoebas which makes them difficult to eradicate in water systems.

A. Coxiella
B. Shigella
C. Helicobacter
D. Legionella

Legionella

The causative agent of cholera. This disease usually inhabits coastal salt waters and is transmitted to humans mostly by raw or undercooked shellfish.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella

Vibrio

They inhibit the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals, active fermenters of glucose and other carbohydrates. They produce a protein called bacteriocins.

A. Enterobacteriales
B. Vibrionales
C. Legionellales
D. Bacillales

Enterobacteriales

Name the nine enterobacteriales

Hint 1: SKYPE SEES enterics

Shigella, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia, Erwinia, Serratia

The four orders of Gammaproteobacteria

Hint 1: EnteroPs ViLe

Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Vibrionales, Legionellales

What is a protein that help maintain the ecological balance of various entrics in the intestines.

A. prosthecae
B. Swarmer cell
C. bacteriocins
D. seovars

bacteriocins

Widely distributed in humans and animals, as well as water, sewage, and soil. Causes urinary tract infections.

A. Erwinia
B. Klebsiella
C. Enterobacter
D. Yersinia

Enterobacter

Produces an enzyme that hydrolyzes the pectin in plant cells, causing plant rot

A. Erwinia
B. Klebsiella
C. Enterobacter
D. Yersinia

Erwinia

True/False

Proteobacteria include mostly gram-negative, chemoheterotrophics

True

Name that microbe

1. One of the most common inhabitants of human intestinal tract
2. transmitted through fecal contamination
3. Not usually pathogenic

E. coli

E. cloacae and E. aerogenes are from the genus ______ and can cause_____

A. Mycobacterium, tuberculosis
B. Enterococcus, surgical wound infections
C. Enterobacter, urinary tract infections
D. Escherichia, food poisioning

Enterobacter, urinary tract infections

What is the common cause for typhoid fever

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Salmonella typhi

Salmonella typhi

Cells that have flagella and move outward to the edge of the colony and then revert back to normal cells.

A. prosthecae
B. Swarmer cell
C. bacteriocins
D. seovars

Swarmer cell

Which genus contains swarmer cells.

A. Proteus
B .Helicobacter
C. Bacillus
D. Nocardia

Proteus

Klebsiella pneumoniaecause what in humans?

pneumonia

Distinguished by its production of red pigment

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Salmonella typhi

Serratia marcescens

Only found in humans. Can cause life threatening dysentery.

A. Coxiella
B. Shigella
C. Helicobacter
D. Legionella

Shigella

Cause of the plague. Transmitted by fleas, rats, and respiratory droplets.

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Yersinia pestis
D. Helicobacter pylori

Yersinia pestis

Gram-negative helical rods that are the most common cause of peptic ulcers and stomach cancer.

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Yersinia pestis
D. Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori

Endospore-forming bacteria that causes tetanus

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium tetani
D. Bacillus cereus

Clostridium tetani

Endospore-forming bacteria that causes food poisioning

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium tetani
D. Bacillus cereus

Bacillus cereus

Endospore-forming bacteria that causes botulism

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium tetani
D. Bacillus cereus

Clostridium botulinum

Endospore-forming bacteria that causes gangrene

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium perfringes
D. Bacillus cereus

Clostridium perfringes

Endospore-forming bacteria that causes anthrax

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium perfringes
D. Bacillus cereus

Bacillus anthrax

Bacteria that produces antibodies and can be used in biological warfare

A. Proteus
B .Helicobacter
C. Bacillus
D. Nocardia

Bacillus

Lives on the skin and can invade wounds. Becomes resistant to antibiotics quickly.

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Salmonella typhi

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus can grow in

A. low osmotic pressure and low moisture
B. high osmotic pressure and low moisture
C. low osmotic pressure and high moisture
D. high osmotic pressure and high moisture

high osmotic pressure and low moisture

Adapted to areas of the body that are rich in nutrients but low in oxygen ( GI tract, vagina, and oral cavity)

A. Mycobacterium
B. Enterococcus
C. Enterobacter
D. Escherichia

Enterococcus

Smallest self replicating organism that is capable of free-living existence

A. Mycobacterium
B. Enterococcus
C. Microplasmatales
D. Escherichia

Microplasmatales

Which is NOT an endosporing bacteria

A. Serratia marcescens
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium perfringes
D. Bacillus cereus

Serratia marcescens

Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans?
A) Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci
B) Aerobic, helical bacteria
C) Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods
D) Gram-positive cocci
E) Endospore-forming rods

Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Neisseria?
A) Requires X and V factors
B) Cocci
C) Gram-negative
D) Oxidase-positive
E) Some species are human pathogens.

Requires X and V factors

Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be easily differentiated in a laboratory by which one of the following?
A) Cell shape
B) Gram stain reaction
C) Growth in high salt concentrations
D) Ability to cause disease
E) Glucose fermentation

Growth in high salt concentrations

Which of the following genera is an anaerobic gram-negative rod?
A) Escherichia
B) Staphylococcus
C) Bacteroides
D) Treponema
E) Neisseria

Bacteroides

Which of the following is NOT an enteric?
A) Salmonella
B) Shigella
C) Escherichia
D) Enterobacter
E) Campylobacter

Campylobacter

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of spirochetes?
A) Possess an axial filament
B) Gram-negative
C) Helical shape
D) Easily observed with brightfield microscopy
E) Difficult to culture in vitro

Easily observed with brightfield microscopy

Which of the following lacks a cell wall?
A) Borrelia
B) Mycoplasma
C) Mycobacterium
D) Clostridium
E) Nocardia

Mycoplasma

Which of the following bacteria is gram-negative?
A) Treponema
B) Corynebacterium
C) Bacillus
D) Staphylococcus
E) Mycobacterium

Treponema

Rickettsias differ from chlamydias in that rickettsias
A) Are gram-negative.
B) Are intracellular parasites.
C) Require an arthropod for transmission.
D) Form elementary bodies.
E) Lack cell walls.

Require an arthropod for transmission

Which of the following bacteria is gram-positive?
A) Pseudomonas
B) Salmonella
C) Streptococcus
D) Bacteroides
E) Rickettsia

Streptococcus

Escherichia coli belongs to the
A) Proteobacteria.
B) Gram-positive bacteria.
C) Green sulfur bacteria.
D) Spirochetes.
E) Actinomycetes

Proteobacteria

Which one of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
A) Bacillus
B) Escherichia
C) Lactobacillus
D) Staphylococcus
E) Streptococcus

Escherichia

Which of the following statements about the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is false?
A) It is an intracellular parasite.
B) It is transmitted by ticks.
C) It is in the genus Rickettsia.
D) It is gram-negative.
E) It is found in soil and water.

It is found in soil and water.

Which one of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
A) Bordetella
B) Burkholderia
C) Campylobacter
D) Pseudomonas
E) Salmonella

Salmonella

Which of the following bacteria are responsible for more infections and more different kinds of infections?
A) Streptococcus
B) Staphylococcus
C) Salmonella
D) Pseudomonas
E) Neisseria

Streptococcus

Which of the following is the best reason to classify Streptococcus in the Lactobacillales?
A) Gram reaction
B) Morphology
C) Fermentation of lactose
D) rRNA sequences
E) Found in dairy products

rRNA sequences

Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Serratia are all
A) Pathogens.
B) Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rods.
C) Gram-positive aerobic cocci.
D) Fermentative.
E) Endospore-forming bacteria.

Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rods.

You have isolated a gram-positive rod. What should you do next?
A) Gram stain
B) Lactose fermentation
C) Endospore stain
D) Flagella stain
E) Enterotube

Endospore stain

Borrelia is classified as a spirochete because it
A) Is aerobic.
B) Possesses an axial filament.
C) Is a rod.
D) Is a pathogen.
E) Is transmitted by ticks.

Possesses an axial filament

You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. The first step in identification is a(n)
A) Gram stain.
B) Lactose fermentation test.
C) Endospore stain.
D) Flagella stain.
E) DNA fingerprint.

Gram stain

You have isolated an aerobic gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium that grows well on nutrient agar. To which of the following groups does it most likely belong?
A) Phototrophic bacteria
B) Gammaproteobacteria
C) Deltaproteobacteria
D) Bacillales
E) Canʹt tell

Bacillales

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A) Spirochete - axial filament
B) Aerobic, helical bacteria - gram-negative C) Enterics - gram-negative
D) Mycobacteria - acid-fast
E) Pseudomonas - gram-positive

Pseudomonas - gram-positive

All of the following bacteria are motile; which does (do) NOT have flagella?
A) Escherichia
B) Helical bacteria
C) Pseudomonas
D) Spirochetes
E) Salmonella

Spirochetes

Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria in that they
A) Grow inside host cells.
B) Lack a cell wall.
C) Are acid-fast.
D) Are motile.
E) Are gram-negative

Lack a cell wall

Burkholderia was reclassified from the gammaproteobacteria to the betaproteobacteria because
A) It grows in disinfectants.
B) It is a gram-negative rod.
C) It causes infections in cystic fibrosis patients.
D) It causes melioidosis.
E) Its rRNA sequence is similar to that of Neisseria

Its rRNA sequence is similar to that of Neisseria

Which of the following is a characteristic of Clostridium?
A) endospore-forming cocci
B) mycobacteria
C) anaerobic gram-positive rods
D) aerobic-gram-negative rods

anaerobic gram-positive rods

Which of the following are anaerobic, gram-negative rods:
A)Escherichia
B)Staphylococcus
C)Bacteroides
D)Treponema

Bacteroides

Which of the following characteristics are shared by Enterococcus and Streptococcus?

A. growth patterns on blood agar
B. cell arrangement
C. found on/in healthy carriers
D. none of the above

cell arrangement

Which of the following techniques would allow you to easily differentiate between Staphylococcus and Enterococcus?

A. Gram stain
B. genetic testing
C. simple stain
D. all of the above

all of the above

True/ False

The majority of bacterial species on Earth have not been successfully cultivated.

True

Which of the following statements about the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is FALSE?

A. It is an intracellular parasite.
B. It is transmitted by ticks.
C. It is gram-negative.
D. It is in the genus Rickettsia.
E. It is found in soil and water.

It is found in soil and water.

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