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The following are steps used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?
A) Add stain.
B) Perform electrophoresis.
C) Collect DNA.
D) Digest with a restriction enzyme.
E) Lyse cells.

Digest with a restriction enzyme.

The reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase is A) DNA → mRNA.
B) mRNA → protein.
C) tRNA → mRNA.
D) DNA → DNA.
E) mRNA → cDNA.

mRNA → cDNA.

Which of the following is an advantage of using E. coli to make a human gene product?
A) It does not secrete most proteins.
B) Endotoxin may be in the product.
C) It cannot process introns.
D) Its genes are well known.
E) Endotoxin may be in the product and it does not secrete most proteins.

Its genes are well known.

Which of the following is NOT an agricultural product made by DNA techniques?
A) Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide
B) glyphosate-resistant crops
C) pectinase
D) nitrogenase (nitrogen fixation)
E) frost retardant

Pectinase

If you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is
A) splicing T DNA into a plasmid.
B) inserting the Ti plasmid into a plant cell.
C) transformation of an animal cell.
D) inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.
E) transformation of E. coli with Ti plasmid.

Inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.

Biotechnology involves the
A) use of microorganisms to make desired products.
B) use of animal cells to make vaccines.
C) development of disease-resistant crop plants.
D) use of microorganisms to make desired products and the use of animal cells to make vaccines.
E) use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines,
and the development of disease-resistant crop plants.

Use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease-resistant crop plants.

Which of the following is NOT a desired characteristic of DNA vectors used in gene cloning procedures?
A) circular form of DNA or integrates into the host chromosome
B) large size
C) self-replication
D) may replicate in several species
E) has a selectable marker

Large size.

An advantage of synthetic DNA over genomic or cDNA is the ability to
A) make DNA from cellular RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
B) obtain genes that lack exons.
C) isolate unknown genes.
D) obtain genes that lack introns.
E) insert desired restriction sites into the DNA sequence.

Insert desired restriction sites into the DNA sequence.

An advantage of cDNA over genomic DNA is that it
A) is very easy to isolate.
B) lacks exons.
C) can form very large DNA segments.
D) contains selectable markers.
E) lacks introns.

Lacks introns.

Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a
A) clone.
B) PCR.
C) vector.
D) Southern blot.
E) library.

Library.

A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a
A) library.
B) vector.
C) clone.
D) PCR.
E) Southern blot.

Clone.

Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a
A) library.
B) vector.
C) Southern blot.
D) clone.
E) PCR.

Vector.

The Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was focused on
A) determining all of the proteins encoded by the human genome.
B) determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.
C) identifying all of the genes in the human genome.
D) finding a cure for all human genetic disorders.
E) cloning all of the genes of the human genome.

Determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is to
A) mutate bacteria until one makes the improved enzyme.
B) use siRNA to produce the enzyme.
C) determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme.
D) look for a bacterium that makes the improved enzyme.
E) synthesize the gene for the improved enzyme.

Determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme.

You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. After 3 replication cycles, how many
double-stranded DNA molecules do you have?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 8
D) 16
E) thousands

8 double-stranded DNA molecules.

Which of the following are used to silence specific genes and hold promise for treating cancer or viral diseases, such as hepatitis B?
A) RNA interference (RNAi)
B) reverse transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)
C) DNA fingerprinting
D) tumor-inducing plasmids (Ti plasmids)
E) complementary DNA (cDNA)

RNA interference (RNAi)

Which of the following techniques is NOT used to introduce recombinant DNA into plants?
A) Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium
B) protoplast fusion
C) microinjection
D) gene guns
E) electroporation

Microinjection.

A source of heat-stable DNA polymerase is
A) Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
B) Bacillus thuringiensis.
C) Pseudomonas.
D) Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
E) Thermus aquaticus.

Thermus aquaticus.

Gene silencing blocks an undesirable product by
A) end-product repression.
B) allosteric inhibition of an enzyme.
C) making double-stranded RNA.
D) blocking transcription.
E) blocking DNA replication.

Making double-stranded RNA.

You want to determine whether a person has a certain mutant gene. The process involves using a
primer and a heat-stable DNA polymerase. This process is
A) translation.
B) restriction mapping.
C) transformation.
D) site-directed mutagenesis.
E) PCR.

PCR

Assume you have discovered a cell that produces a lipase that works in cold water for a laundry additive. You can increase the efficiency of this enzyme by changing one amino acid. This is done by
A) irradiating the cells.
B) site-directed mutagenesis.
C) selective breeding.
D) selection.
E) enrichment.

Site-directed mutagenesis.

The use of an antibiotic-resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes
A) the recombinant cell unable to survive.
B) direct selection possible.
C) replica plating possible.
D) the recombinant cell dangerous.
E) All of the answers are correct.

Direct selection possible.

The use of "suicide" genes in genetically modified organisms is designed to
A) provide a means to eliminate non-modified organisms.
B) kill the modified organisms before they are released in the environment.
C) provide for resistance of the modified organisms to pesticides.
D) prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment.
E) delete genes necessary for modified organism's growth.

Prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment.

A restriction fragment is
A) a gene.
B) a segment of DNA.
C) cDNA.
D) a segment of tRNA.
E) a segment of mRNA.

A segment of DNA.

In the Southern blot technique, which of the following is NOT required?
A) transfer of DNA to nitrocellulose
B) electrophoresis to separate fragments
C) addition of heat-stable DNA polymerase to amplify DNA
D) restriction enzyme digestion of DNA
E) addition of a labeled probe to identify the gene of interest

Addition of heat-stable DNA polymerase to amplify DNA

Which of the following processes is NOT involved in making cDNA?
A) RNA processing to remove introns
B) translation
C) reverse transcription
D) transcription

Translation.

PCR can be used to identify an unknown bacterium because
A) the RNA primer is specific.
B) DNA polymerase will replicate DNA.
C) DNA can be electrophoresed.
D) all cells have DNA.
E) all cells have RNA.

The RNA primer is specific.

The random shotgun method is used in
A) transforming plant cells with recombinant DNA.
B) RFLP analysis.
C) forensic microbiology.
D) genome sequencing.
E) amplification of unknown DNA.

Genome sequencing.

Restriction enzymes are
A) bacterial enzymes that splice DNA.
B) viral enzymes that destroy host DNA.
C) animal enzymes that splice RNA.
D) bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA.

Bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA.

The study of genetic material taken directly from the environment is
A) reverse genetics.
B) bioinformatics.
C) metagenomics.
D) forensic microbiology.
E) proteomics.

Metagenomics.

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