5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Samuel J. Tilden
- United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
- Chief Dull Knife
- 14. What Frederick Jackson Turner's "frontier thesis" is and how historians regard it today
- a a return of part of an original amount paid for some service or merchandise
- b ...
- c -1895
-Knight firm, together with four other corporations, controlled more than 90% of all U.S. sugar refining and therefore operated in illegal restraint of trade
-Court threw out the suit drawing a distinction between commerce and manufacturing and defining the latter as a local concern, not a part of interstate commerce
-the Court's decision ignored the fact that most trusts dominated the market through their extensive interstate distribution webs
- d Hayes' opponent in the 1876 presidential race, he was the Democratic nominee who had gained fame for putting Boss Tweed behind bars. He collected 184 of the necessary 185 electoral votes.
- e -led 150 survivors from the Battle of Little Big Horn north in September 1878 to join the Sioux
-they were chased down by the army and imprisoned in Fort Robinson, Nebraska
-when the army denied their request to stay nearer to their traditional northern lands, tribal leaders refused to leave the fort. The post commander then withheld all food, water and fuel
-January 1879, Dull Knife and his followers shot the guards and broke for freedom. Members of the startled garrison chased the Indians and gunned down half of them in the snow, including women, children, and Dull Knife himself
5 Multiple choice questions
- organization of a single corporation, through consolidation measures, to gain broad control over all manufacturing of a particular product
- 1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
- united states general who was killed along with all his command by the sioux at the battle of little bighorn (1839-1876)
5 True/False questions
10. The attempts of labor to improve its condition through unionization and strikes and why those efforts had little success → -The benefits of big business were that they created a lot of jobs, lower prices, labor-saving products (sewing machine), and advances in transportation and communications. Also some people, such as Rockefeller and Carnegie, managed to accumulate a large fortune.
-The problems of big business were that the cost to start a company was so high that it bankrupted many people, workers were paid subsistence wages and could be fired at a moment's notice when hard times or new technologies made them expendable. Industrialization also was terrible for the environment, causing a lot of pollution (rivers fouled by oil or chemical waste, smoky skies filled with clouds of soot, and a landscape littered with reeking garbage and toxic materials. Also hours were long and working conditions were not always safe.
8. The ways in which workers reacted to the unfavorable changes imposed on them by industrialization and the growth of big business → -With the growing industrialization and big businesses, the middle-class citizens began to fear the trusts' unchecked power.
-In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibited any "contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce". However, the act did not ease tensions for long.
-In 1895, the Supreme Court ruled, in the United States v. E.C. Knight Co., that the Sherman Antitrust Act could be applied only to commerce, not to manufactuirng.
-Although more jobs were created, they became repetitive and monotonous because workers were assigned just one step in the manufacturing of a product. Many times the working conditions were dangerous.
-The intolerable working conditions led to quitting, strikes, and labor unions.
-companies formed tacticts for defeating unions: the lockout (closing the factory to break a movement before it could get organized), the blacklist (names of prounion workers circulated amoung umemployers), yellow-dog contracts (as a condition for employment workers had to sign an agreement not to join a union), calling in private guard and state militia to put down strikes., and obtaining court injunctions against strikes.
-There was an outbreak of violence in 1877 when the railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs.
-The National Labor Union was formed in 1866 and had 640,000 members by 1868. It had a broad social program: equal rights for women and blacks, monetrary reform. Their main victory was winning the 8 hour work day.
-The Knights of Labor formed in 1869 as a secret society in order to aviod detection by employers. The leader, Powderly advocated worker cooperatives, abolition of child labor, and abolition of trusts and monopolies.
-Many Ameriacns concluded that the union movement was radical and violent however, after the Haymarket Bombing.
-The American Federaiton of Labor was founded in 1886. The leader Samuel Gompers, went after higher wages and improved working conditions. By 1901, the AF of L had 1 million memebrs.
-then theres the homestead strike and the pullman strike
Jay Gould and Jim Fisk → Wall Street financiers who obtained the help of President Grant's brother in law to corner the gold market; Treasury broke the scheme but first, they made a huge profit
2. Andrew Johnson's plan of reconstruction, what he hoped to accomplish with it, why it failed → ...
11. The most important gold and silver strikes in the West and who made fortunes from them → -diseases such as smallpox, measles, and diphtheria ravaged the Native population
-settlers moved with increasing frequency west and uprooted the Native's from their land
-railroads killed off the buffalo to prevent damage to their tracks
-armies massacred peaceful Indian's and forced them onto reservations that were not compatible with their way of life