Incidence of this cancer is rising faster than any other malignancy in the US as a result of genetics and sun exposure
2nd most common cause of death in the US
Cancer incidence and death rates are disproportionately higher in this racial group
a broad range of diseases of multiple causes that can arise in any cell of the body capable of evading regulatory controls over proliferation and differentiation
cellular proliferation, cellular differentiation
Two major cellular dysfunctions in the process of cancer are defective _________ and _________.
predetermined, undifferentiated cells are known as ________
Under normal conditions, cellular proliferation is (greater than, equal to or less than?) cellular death
_______ cells respect the boundaries and territory of the cells surrounding them.
Respect for cellular boundaries is known as _____________.
The rate of normal cell proliferation is (different or the same?) in each body tissue.
Cancer cells usually proliferate at the same rate as the cells of the tissue from which they arise, but they divide _________ and __________.
1) it can die 2) it can repair itself 3) it can survive and pass along the mutation
When a stem cell has mutated, one of these three things can happen to the cell:
When each cell division creates two or more offspring cells, it creates a ______ effect.
An orderly process in which a cell progresses from a state of immaturity to a state of maturity.
normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes; promote cell growth; genetic "lock" that keeps cell in its mature functioning state
tumor suppressor genes
cellular genes that regulate or suppress growth
Mutations can change protooncogenes to __________ (tumor-inducing genes).
_______ neoplasms are well differentiated, _________ neoplasms are well differentiated to undifferentiated.
first stage of cancer development; a mutation occurs in the cell's genetic structure resulting from inheritance or following exposure to a chemical, radiation or a viral agent.
cellular "suicide" occurring due to a defect in a cell
cancer-causing agent capable of producing a cellular alteration; may be chemical, radiation or viral
Viruses that can induce malignant transformation are termed __________
_____% of cancers have a strong genetic link.
Second stage in the development of cancer, characterized by the reversible proliferation of the altered cells.
dietary fat, obesity, smoking, alcohol use
Promoting factors can be modified to reduce the chance of cancer development. Some promoting factors include:
The period of time ranging from 1 to 40 years that elapses between the initial genetic alteration and the actual clinical evidence of cancer is called the _______ period.
The smallest size tumor usually able to be detected by palpation is ______.
The smallest size tumor that can be detected by MRI is _____.
Final stage in the development of cancer characterized by increased growth rate of the tumor, increased invasiveness and spread of the cancer.
Spread of cancer to a distant site
lungs, brain, liver, bone and adrenal glands
Most frequent sites of metastasis:
Process of the formation of blood vessels within the tumor itself:
Altered cell surface antigens that result from malignant transformation
response of the immune system to antigens of the malignant cells; lymphocytes continually check cell surface antigens and detect and destroy cells with abnormal or altered antigenic determinants.
Type of tumor antigen found on both the surfaces and the inside of cancer cells and fetal cells that reflect the shift of cancerous cells to a more immature metabolic pathway; ex. AFP and CEA
anatomic site, histology (grading) and extent of disease (staging)
Tumors can be classified in these 3 ways:
Means of classifying a tumor by looking at the tissue of origin, the anatomic site and the behavior of the tumor (benign or malignant)
In ______ grading of tumors, the appearance of cells and the degree of differentiation are evaluated.
Grade of tumor: cells have mild dysplasia and are well differentiated
Grade of tumor: cells have moderate dysplasia and are moderately differentiated
Grade of tumor: cells have severe dysplasia and are poorly differentiated
Grade of tumor: cells are immature and primitive; cell of origin is difficult to determine
description of the extent of the disease rather than on cell appearance
Stage ___: cancer in situ
Stage ___: tumor limited to the tissue of origin; localized tumor growth
Stage ___: limited local spread
Stage ___: extensive local and regional spread
Stage ___: metastasis
tumor size and invasiveness
In the TNM classification system, the T represents:
presence or absence of regional spread to the lymph nodes
In the TNM classification system, the N represents:
metastasis to distant organ sites
In the TNM classification system, the M represents:
Type of cancer that cannot be staged using TNM classification:
After the age of 50, a colonoscopy is recommended every _____ years.
Annual clinical breast exams and mammography are recommended for women over the age of ____. Women between 20-39 years should have a clinical breast exam every ____ years.
only definitive means of diagnosing cancer
if the tissue is benign or malignant, anatomic tissue the tumor came from, degree of cellular differentiation
A biopsy will attempt to determine these three things:
type of biopsy in which cells and tissue fragments are obtained through a large-bore needle
type of biopsy in which a scalpel or dermal punch is used to obtain a tissue sample
type of biopsy in which the entire tumor is removed; usually used for tumors less than 2 cm
Type of biopsy that is considered therapeutic and diagnostic
Surgery and radiation are considered _______ therapies, while chemotherapy is ________ therapy.
Treatment with the goal of relieving or controlling symptoms and maintaining a satisfactory quality of life
Treatment offered that is expected to have the greatest chance of getting rid of the disease
Treatment for cancers that cannot be completely eradicated but are responsive to anticancer therapies
Use of chemicals as a systemic therapy for cancer
cell cycle phase-nonspecific
Chemotherapeutic drugs that have an effect on cells during all phases of the cell cycle
cell cycle phase-specific
Chemotherapeutic drugs that exert their most significant effects during specific phases of the cell cycle
A malignant tumor arising from a glandular organ such as the breast
A cancerous (malignant) bone tumor often seen in adolescence or in people over 60. The most common childhood bone cancer
A benign fatty tumor that often appear in the arms or trunk of the body
A rare, malignant sarcoma of the bone and joints
squamous cell carcinoma
A type of nonmelanoma skin cancer
A spindle celled sarcoma containing a large amount of connective tissue
A malignant brain tumor made up of neuroglia cells which is the most aggressive of all primary brain tumors
A malignant hemorrhagic tumor composed mainly of cells resembling neuroblasts that irritate cells of the sympathetic nervous system. These tumors occur mainly in infants and children and the primary sites are in the mediastinal and retroperitoneal regions.
Occuring often in children and young adults, this is a malignant bone tumor
The most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in most children is unknown
A malignant glioma (neuroglia cells) of the retina often occurring in children and usually hereditary
A combination of a benign tumor consisting mainly of smooth muscle and a sarcoma
Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of immature blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream.
Cancer of the immune system cells of the lymphatic system
Cancer that begins in the plasma of the bone marrow but forms tumors that set up in the solid bones
Obtaining specimens of cells by various methods including irrigation of a hollow tube
sentinel node biopsy
A biopsy of the first lymph node(s) to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from a primary tumor.