Chapter 12; Cell Cycle

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AP Biology

All of the following statements are true except:

The motic spindles in prokaryotic cells are composed of microtubules

The centromere is a region in which

Chromatids are attached to one another

Two centromeres are arranged at opposite poles of the cell

Prometaphase

Centrioles begin to move apart in animal cells.

Prophase

This is longest of the mitotic stages.

Phophase

Centromeres uncouple, sister chromatids are seperated, and the two new chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell

Anaphase

If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?

Metaphase

A cell containing 92 chromatids at metaphase of mitosis would, at its completion, produce two nuclei containing how many chromosomes?

46

All of the following occur during prometaphase of mitosis in animal cells except

Chromosomes are duplicated

If there are 20 centromeress in a cell, how many chromosomes are there?

20

Of the following, the best conclusion concerning the difference between the S phase for beta and grama is that

gamma contains more DNA than beta

The best conclusion concering delta is that the cells

Containonly one chromosomethat is very short

The S phase was measured by

determining the start and stop of increased DNA in the cells

Where do the microtubules of the spindle orginate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

Centrosome

All of the following occur during mitosis except

The synthesis of DNA

if a cell has 8 chromosomes at metaphase of mitosis, how many chromosomes will it have during anaphase?

16

Cytokinesis usually, but not always, follows mitosis. If a cell composed mitosis but not cytokinesis, what would be the result?

a cell with 2 nuclei

reguarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants

a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a clevage furrow is initiated at that stage

How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?

the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA

The formation of a cell plate is beginning across the middle of a cell and nuclei are re-forming at opposite ends of the cell. What kind of cell is that?

a plant cell unergoing cytokinesis

Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the pacific yew tree. In animal cells, taxol disrupts mictrotubles and acclerating their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Suprisingly this stops mitosis. Specifically taxol must affect

The fibers of the mitotic spindle

Which of the following is primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells?

Golgi- derived vesicles

Which of the following organisms does not reproduce cells by mitosis and cytokinesis?

bacterium

During which phase of mitosis do we find chromosomes composed of 2 chromatids?

from G2 of interphase through metaphase

Which of the following is not true of bacterial chromosome?

Its centromeres uncouple during replication

I which group of eukaryotic organisms does the nuclear envelope remain intact during mitosis?

dinoflagellates and diatoms

Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that

Prevented shortening of microtubles

If mammalian cells recieve a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, they will

complete the cycle and divide

Cells that are in a nonividing state are in which phase?

G0

Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged from 3 to 6 picograms per nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle was the nucleus with 6 picograms of DNA?

G2

What causes the rhythmic change in cyclin concentration in the cell cycle?

Its destruction by an enzyme phosphorylated by MPF

released by platelets in the vicinity of an injury

PDGF

enzymes that activate or inactivate other proteins by phosphorylating them

Protain kinase

fibroblasts have receptors fro this substance on their plasma membranes

PDGF

a protein synthesized through the cell cycle that associates with a kiase to form active enzymes

cyclin

triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into mitosis

MPF

the "restriction point" occurs here

G1

nerve and muscle cells are in this phase

G0

the shortest part of cell cycle

M

DNA is replicated at this time of the cell cycle

Protein Kinase

Cyclin is destroyed toward the end of this phase

M

What are enzymes called that control the activites of other proteins by phosphorylating them?

kinase

a group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. THose cells woul have ____ picograms at the end of the S phase and ________ picograms at the end of G2

16 ... 16

As the cell progresses through prophase and into metaphase, ehat happens to the active anaphase-promoting complex proteins?

they increase sharply once all the chromosomes are lined up in metaphase

what triggers the seperation of chromatids during mitosis?

activation of an anaphase-promoting complex

Proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and that show fluctuations in concentration during the cell cycle, are called

cyclins

THe MPF protein complex turns itself off by

activating an enzyme that destroys cyclin

recent research has indicated that cancer cells

transform normal cells by altering genes involved in the control of mitosis

a mutation results in a cell that no longer produces a normal protein kinase for the M phase checkpoint. Which of the following would likely be the immediate result of this mutation?

the cell would undergo normal mitosis, but fail to enter the next G1

Density-dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following?

as the cells become more numerous, the amount of required growth factors and nutrients per cell becomes insufficient to allow for cell growth

Which of the following is true concering cancer cells?

they do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture,when they stop dividing they do so at random points in the cell cycle, and they have escaped from cell cycle controls

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