AP Gov - Chapter 6

55 terms by DWilson10 

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faction

A term used by the founders of this country to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.

interest group

A collection of people who share some common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and employ tactics such as lobbying to achieve their goals.

movement

A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies.

open shop

A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.

closed shop

A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.

free rider

An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the influence the group achieves.

Federal Register

Official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.

amicus curiae brief

Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.

lobbying

Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.

lobbyist

A person who is employed by an acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.

revolving door

Employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or business with the same policy concern.

political action committee (PAC)

The political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties.

bundling

A tactic of political action committees whereby they collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2,000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle," thus increasing their influence.

independent expenditures

The Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure.

hard money

Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term "hard money."

soft money

Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.

issue advocacy

Unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates.

527 groups

A political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election where a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted. 527 groups were important to the 2000 and 2004 elections.

quid pro quo

Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.

pluralism

Political system in which power is distributed among multiple groups.

AFBF

American Farm Bureau Federation

AFL-CIO

Powerful labor union.

UAW

United Autoworkers

Teamsters

Labor union known for renegotiating contracts.

Chambers of Commerce

Unions of corporations and business interests.

ABA / AMA

American Bar Association (attorneys) and American Medical Association (doctors). Professional interest groups.

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - nontraditional protest group

NOW

National Organization of Women - nontraditional protest group

ACT UP

AIDS coalition - nontraditional protest group

Right to Life

Pro-life single issue group.

NRA

National Rifle Association. Single issue group.

MADD

Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Single issue group.

PETA

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Single issue group.

Public Citizen

Group founded by Ralph Nader for consumer support and open government.

Sierra Club

Environmental action public interest group.

League of Women Voters

Public interest group for women.

501c3

Non-profit groups which are tax exempt and cannot participate in elections or campaigns.

Christian Coalition

Powerful ideological evangelical interest group.

ACLU

American Civil Liberties Union (ideological interest group).

Brookings Institute

Liberal think-tank ideological interest group.

Cato Institute

Libertarian think-tank ideological interest group.

Heritage Foundation

Conservative think-tank ideological interest group.

National Governors' Association

Government interest group of all of the state governors.

Maricopa Association of Governments

Government interest groups of cities in Maricopa county.

litigation

Lawsuits used to achieve a purpose.

initiative

Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters.

referendum

Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution.

recall

Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.

iron triangle

A mutually dependent relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and government agencies that share a common policy concern.

cooperative lobbying

Unified lobbying from groups.

grassroots lobbying

Lobbying from the ground-up.

netroots lobbying

Lobbying from online sources.

1946 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act

Required lobbyist registration and disclosure but full of loopholes.

Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995

Tightened up registration and disclosure requirements, restricted gifts, meals, expense-paid travel, restricted the revolving door.

FECA 1974

Limits on what individuals can give but not on PACs.

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