Biology Exam 3

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Organismal

Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition by

A) using enzymes to digest their food.
B) ingesting it.
C) preying on animals.
D) consuming living, rather than dead, prey.

B

The larvae of some insects are merely small versions of the adult, whereas the larvae of other insects look completely different from adults, eat different foods, and may live in different habitats. Which of the following most directly favors the evolution of the latter, more radical, kind of metamorphosis?

A) changes in the homeobox genes governing early development
B) the evolution of meiosis
C) natural selection of sexually immature forms of insects
D) the origin of a brain
E) the development of an oxidizing atmosphere on Earth

A

What do animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common?

A) type of body symmetry
B) body cavity between body wall and digestive system
C) number of embryonic tissue layers
D) presence of Hox genes
E) degree of cephalization

D

Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?

A) cells that have mitochondria
B) nervous conduction and muscular movement
C) the structural carbohydrate, chitin
D) flagellated gametes
E) heterotrophy

B

The Hox genes came to regulate each of the following in what sequence, from earliest to most recent?
1. identity and position of paired appendages in protostome embryos
2. anterior-posterior orientation of segments in protostome embryos
3. positioning of tentacles in cnidarians
4. anterior-posterior orientation in vertebrate embryos

A) 3 → 4 → 1 → 2
B) 4 → 1 → 3 → 2
C) 4 → 2 → 3 → 1
D) 4 → 2 → 1 → 3
E) 3 → 2 → 1 → 4

E

All animals can trace their lineage to a common ancestor that lived in the _____.

A) Devonian
B) Pliocene
C) Cenozoic
D) Neoproterozoic era
E) Jurassic

D

The earliest ancestors of about half of all extant animal phyla can be traced back to the _____ explosion.

A) Cambrian
B) Jurassic
C) Carboniferous
D) Devonian
E) Pleistocene

A

Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example of

A) a large meteor impact.
B) mass extinction.
C) evolutionary stasis.
D) adaptive radiation.

D

Which of the following statements is correct?

A) Eumetazoans have three embryonic tissue layers.
B) Sponges are diploblastic animals.
C) All animals share a common ancestor.
D) The origin of all extant animal phyla can be traced to the Cambrian explosion.
E) Most animal phyla belong to the clade Radiata.

C

What does recent evidence from molecular systematics reveal about the relationship between grades and clades?

A) There is no relationship.
B) Some, but not all, grades reflect evolutionary relatedness.
C) Grades have their basis in, and flow from, clades.
D) Each branch point on a phylogenetic tree is associated with the evolution of a new grade.

B

Some researchers claim that sponge genomes have homeotic genes, but no Hox genes. If true, this finding would

A) mean that sponges must no longer be classified as animals.
B) mean that extinct sponges must have been the last common ancestor of animals and fungi.
C) confirm the identity of sponges as "basal animals."
D) strengthen sponges' evolutionary ties to the Eumetazoa.
E) require sponges to be reclassified as choanoflagellates.

C

A sponge's structural materials (spicules, spongin) are manufactured by the

A) epidermal cells.
B) amoebocytes.
C) choanocytes.
D) pore cells.

B

How many of the following can be observed in the mesohyl of various undisturbed sponges at one time or another?
1. amoebocytes
2. spicules
3. spongin
4. zygotes
5. choanocytes

A) 1 and 2
B) 2, 3, 4
C) 1, 2, 3, and 4
D) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

C

In terms of food capture, which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of a cnidarian?

A) pore cell
B) epidermal cell
C) amoebocyte
D) choanocyte

D

Which of the following are entirely, or partly, composed of calcium carbonate?

A) coral animals' exoskeletons
B) spicules of siliceous sponges
C) molluscs' mantles
D) insects' cuticles
E) nematodes' cuticles

A

Sponges are most accurately described as

A) freshwater scavengers.
B) chemoautrophs.
C) marine predators.
D) filter feeders.
E) aquatic predators.

D

Which of the following is a characteristic of cnidarians?

A) mesoderm
B) radula
C) gastrovascular cavity
D) an anus
E) bilateral symmetry

C

How many of the following are characteristics of at least some members of the phylum Cnidaria?
1. a gastrovascular cavity
2. a polyp stage
3. a medusa stage
4. cnidocytes
5. a pseudocoelom

A) 1
B) 2 and 3
C) 3, 4 and 5
D) 1, 2, 3, and 4
E) All of the above are correct

D

The members of which clade in the phylum Cnidaria occur only as polyps?

A) Cubozoa
B) Hydrozoa
C) Anthozoa
D) Scyphozoa

C

Which clade in the phylum Cnidaria includes "jellies" with rounded (as opposed to boxlike) medusae?

A) Cubozoa
B) Scyphozoa
C) Anthozoa
D) Hydrozoa

B

Corals are most closely related to which group?

A) freshwater hydras
B) barnacles
C) sea anemones
D) sponges
E) jellies

C

Which of the following is a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators?

A) Annelida
B) Mollusca
C) Cnidaria
D) Arthropoda
E) Echinodermata

C

Which of the following is characteristic of the phylum Platyhelminthes?

A) They are radially symmetrical.
B) They are dorsoventrally flattened.
C) They typically reproduce asexually.
D) They are all parasitic.
E) They are diploblastic.

B

Some species of rotifers consist solely of females. Their method of reproduction is described as _____.

A) parthenogenesis
B) budding
C) fragmentation
D) sperm-stealing
E) binary fission

A

Ectoprocts and brachiopods are collectively referred to as _____.

A) flatworms
B) eumetazoans
C) lophophorates
D) ecdysozoans
E) trochophorates

C

Planarians lack dedicated respiratory and circulatory systems because

A) their flame bulbs can carry out respiratory and circulatory functions.
B) none of their cells are far removed from the gastrovascular cavity or from the external environment.
C) their body cavity, a pseudocoelom, carries out these functions.
D) they lack mesoderm as embryos and, therefore, lack the adult tissues derived from mesoderm.

B

What would be the most effective method of reducing the incidence of blood flukes in a human population?

A) purify all drinking water
B) carefully wash all raw fruits and vegetables
C) reduce the mosquito population
D) avoid contact with rodent droppings
E) reduce the population of the intermediate snail host

E

The larvae of many common tapeworm species that infect humans are usually found

A) encysted in freshwater snails.
B) crawling in the abdominal blood vessels of cows and pigs.
C) encysted in the muscles of an animal, such as a cow or pig.
D) crawling in the intestines of cows and pigs.

C

A brachiopod can be distinguished from a bivalve by the presence of

A) a distinct head.
B) a digestive system with separate mouth and anus.
C) two hinged shells.
D) suspension feeding.
E) a lophophore.

E

If a lung were to be found in a mollusc, where would it be located?

A) excurrent siphon
B) incurrent siphon
C) coelom
D) visceral mass
E) mantle cavity

E

Which mollusc clade includes members that undergo embryonic torsion?

A) bivalves
B) cephalopods
C) chitons
D) gastropods

D

A terrestrial mollusc without a shell belongs to which clade?

A) bivalves
B) chitons
C) gastropods
D) cephalopods

C

A radula is present in members of which clade(s)?

A) bivalves
B) bivalves, gastropods and chitons
C) chitons, gastropods and cephalopods
D) bivalves and chitons
E) bivalves, gastropods and cephalopods

C

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (i.e., extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plummules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The claws on the foremost trunk segment of centipedes have a function most similar to that of

A) cerata.
B) rhinophores.
C) dorsal plummules.
D) more than one of these.

A

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (i.e., extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plummules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The stingers of honeybees have a function most similar to that of

A) dorsal plummules.
B) cerata.
C) rhinophores.
D) more than one of these.

B

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (i.e., extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plummules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The spiracles and tracheae of insects have a function most similar to that of

A) rhinophores.
B) dorsal plummules.
C) cerata.
D) more than one of these.

B

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (i.e., extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plummules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The antennae of insects have a function most similar to that of

A) rhinophores.
B) cerata.
C) dorsal plummules.
D) more than one of these.

A

Nudibranchs, a type of predatory sea slug, can have various protuberances (i.e., extensions) on their dorsal surfaces. Rhinophores are paired structures, located close to the head, which bear many chemoreceptors. Dorsal plummules, usually located posteriorly, perform respiratory gas exchange. Cerata usually cover much of the dorsal surface and contain nematocysts at their tips.

The parapodia of polychaetes have a function most similar to that of

A) dorsal plummules.
B) rhinophores.
C) cerata.
D) more than one of these.

A

The small, thin extensions of the skin on the aboral surfaces of sea stars have a function most similar to that of

A) rhinophores.
B) dorsal plummules.
C) cerata.
D) more than one of these.

B

If nudibranch rhinophores are located at the anteriors of these sea slugs, then they contribute to the sea slugs'

A) identity as lophotrochozoans.
B) ability to successfully carry out a sessile lifestyle.
C) lack of torsion.
D) segmentation.
E) cephalization.

E

Nudibranchs usually have two rhinophores. However, if they had a single rhinophore, it could still carry out the function of two rhinophores, and with similar effectiveness, if this single rhinophore

A) was as long as two rhinophores placed end to end.
B) was located within the mantle cavity.
C) had cilia whose power strokes directed water away from the surface of the slug.
D) had two branches, one directed to the left, the other to the right.
E) had two branches, one directed toward the head, the other directed toward the tail.

D

A land snail, a clam, and an octopus all share

A) gills.
B) a radula.
C) embryonic torsion.
D) distinct cephalization.
E) a mantle.

E

What structure is responsible for gas exchange in most spiders?

A) the pedipalp
B) chelicerae
C) book lungs
D) Malpighian tubules
E) tracheal tubes

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of nematodes?

A) They have a gastrovascular cavity.
B) All species can be characterized as scavengers.
C) They have a true coelom.
D) Many species are diploblastic.
E) They have only longitudinal muscles.

E

Among the invertebrate phyla, phylum Arthropoda is unique in possessing members that have

A) segmented bodies.
B) a cuticle.
C) a ventral nerve cord.
D) wings.
E) open circulation.

D

You find a small animal with eight legs crawling up your bedroom wall. Closer examination will probably reveal that this animal has

A) two pairs of antennae.
B) simple, but not compound, eyes.
C) a head, thorax, and abdomen.
D) tracheae and spiracles.
E) more than one of these.

B

What distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis in insects?

A) the presence of sex organs in the adult, but not in earlier life stages
B) the presence of wings in the adult, but not in earlier life stages
C) the radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages
D) Three of these responses are correct.
E) Two of these responses are correct.

C

The possession of two pairs of antennae is a characteristic of

A) spiders.
B) crustaceans.
C) insects.
D) centipedes.
E) millipedes.

B

Which of these statements is true of sponges?

A) They have an open circulatory system.
B) They are segmented animals.
C) They have no true tissues.
D) Food is digested within a gastrovascular cavity.
E) They are pseudocoelomates.

C

Which of these statements is true of cnidarians?

A) They have three tissue layers (they are triploblastic).
B) They respire via book lungs.
C) They have a nerve net.
D) They are segmented.
E) They have an exoskeleton composed of chitin.

C

Which of these statements is true of nematodes?

A) They lack a nervous system.
B) They lack a body cavity.
C) They have a digestive system with two openings.
D) Their body plan has two main tissue layers.
E) They are segmented.

C

Nematodes are most closely related to _____.

A) flatworms
B) arthropods
C) rotifers
D) annelids
E) chordates

B

Earthworms are in the phylum _____.

A) Nematoda
B) Annelida
C) Chordata
D) Platyhelminthes
E) Arthropoda

B

Which of these statements is true of earthworms?

A) They lack an excretory system.
B) They have a body cavity.
C) They have a bony endoskeleton.
D) Their digestive system consists of a gastrovascular cavity.
E) Their body plan consists of two tissue layers.

B

Snails are classified in the phylum _____.

A) Chordata
B) Mollusca
C) Cnidaria
D) Arthropoda
E) Echinodermata

B

Which of these characteristics is common to both snails and earthworms?

A) a closed circulatory system
B) segmentation
C) two tissue layers
D) an alimentary system with two openings
E) an exoskeleton

D

Grasshoppers respire via _____.

A) their skin
B) nephridia
C) book lungs
D) spiracles and tracheae
E) Malpighian tubules

D

Grasshoppers are classified in the phylum _____.

A) Annelida
B) Mollusca
C) Nematoda
D) Arthropoda
E) Echinodermata

D

As adults, sea stars _____.

A) exhibit bilateral symmetry
B) exhibit imperfect radial symmetry
C) exhibit perfect radial symmetry
D) exhibit no symmetry
E) lack a digestive system

B

Which of these is a characteristic of sea stars?

A) a closed circulatory system
B) nephridia
C) a brain
D) two tissue layers
E) tube feet

E

The apparent symmetry of adult sea stars is most similar to the actual body symmetry of _____.

A) sponges
B) cnidarians
C) nematodes
D) mollusks
E) flatworms

B

Sea stars are classified in the phylum _____.

A) Echinodermata
B) Cnidaria
C) Arthropoda
D) Mollusca
E) Chordata

E

Which of the following are thought to be most closely related to humans?

A) sea stars
B) snails
C) earthworms
D) jellies
E) ants

A

Which of the following describe(s) echinoderms?

A) Hemolymph circulates in the water vascular system.
B) They have an exoskeleton of hard calcareous plates.
C) Digestion occurs completely outside of the organism.
D) They are found in both freshwater and saltwater environments.
E) Tubefeet provide motility in most species.

E

The water vascular system of echinoderms

A) functions as a circulatory system that distributes nutrients to body cells.
B) functions in locomotion and feeding.
C) is bilateral in organization, even though the adult animal is not bilaterally symmetrical.
D) moves water through the animal's body during suspension feeding.
E) is analogous to the gastrovascular cavity of flatworms.

B

Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is incorrect?

A) Cnidaria-radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms
B) Nematoda-roundworms, pseudocoelomate
C) Platyhelminthes-flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate
D) Echinodermata-bilateral symmetry as a larva, coelom present
E) Porifera-gastrovascular cavity, coelom present

E

What evidence suggests that vertebrates are more closely related to echinoderms than are any other invertebrate phyla?

A) Shared morphology
B) Shared patterns of development
C) Shared DNA sequences

C

A terrestrial animal species is discovered with the following larval characteristics: exoskeleton, system of tubes for gas exchange, and modified segmentation. A knowledgeable zoologist should predict that the adults of this species would also feature

A) an open circulatory system.
B) parapodia.
C) two pairs of antennae.
D) a sessile lifestyle.
E) eight legs.

A

Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic feature of the Chordata?

A) pharyngeal slits or clefts
B) notochord
C) vertebrae
D) a hollow dorsal nerve cord
E) a muscular, post-anal tail

C

Which of the following chordates is most likely to look least like other chordates?

A) embryonic human
B) larval tunicate
C) lancelet
D) adult human
E) adult tunicate

E

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

A) reptiles
B) amphibians
C) adult tunicates
D) lancelets
E) chondrichthyans

D

At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.

A) Hox
B) Otx
C) FOXP2
D) Dlx
E) more than one of these

A

Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?

A) Hox
B) Dlx
C) Otx
D) FOXP2
E) more than one of these

B

Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as

A) components of the jaw.
B) portions of the inner ear.
C) the digestive system's opening.
D) gill slits for respiration.
E) suspension-feeding devices.

E

Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to most zoologists?

A) Lancelets display the same method of swimming as do fishes.
B) The first fossils resembling lancelets appeared in the fossil record around 530 million years ago.
C) Recent work in molecular systematics supports the hypothesis that lancelets are the basal clade of chordates.
D) The extant lancelets are contemporaries, not ancestors, of vertebrates.
E) The extant lancelets are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.

E

Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a skull. These animals may represent

A) marsupials.
B) the first chordates.
C) early craniates.
D) a "missing link" between urochordates and cephalochordates.
E) nontetrapod gnathostomes.

C

Vertebrates and tunicates share

A) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
B) a high degree of cephalization.
C) jaws adapted for feeding.
D) the formation of structures from the neural crest.
E) an endoskeleton that includes a skull.

A

What do lampreys, sharks, snakes, turtles, and cats have that a hagfish lacks?

A) vertebrae
B) a notochord at some point in their lives
C) jaws
D) a cranium
E) legs

A

The feeding mode of the extinct conodonts was

A) suspension feeding.
B) predation.
C) absorptive feeding.
D) herbivory.
E) filter feeding.

B

The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?

A) respiration
B) defense
C) reproduction
D) feeding
E) locomotion

D

Jaws evolved _____.

A) by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal gill slits
B) from the bony armor of ostracoderms
C) from the rasping tongue
D) by modification of middle ear bones
E) from arthropod jaws

A

The diagnostic feature of Chondrichthyes is _____.

A) a swim bladder
B) jaws
C) a lateral line system
D) an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage
E) a streamlined, torpedo-shaped body

D

Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?

A) ray-finned fishes
B) chondrichthyans
C) lungfishes
D) lampreys
E) placoderms

B

Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?

A) The skin is typically covered by flattened bony scales.
B) A swim bladder helps control buoyancy.
C) They are highly maneuverable due to their flexibility.
D) They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
E) They are equally able to exchange gases with the environment while stationary.

D

The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes

A) provides for regulation of buoyancy.
B) was probably modified from simple lungs of chondrichthyans.
C) developed into lungs in saltwater fishes.
D) first appeared in sharks.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

A

There is evidence that ray-finned fishes evolved

A) directly from lampreys and hagfish.
B) early in the Cambrian period.
C) the swim bladder from a lung.
D) in response to a crisis that wiped out the chondrichthyans.
E) directly from lancelets.

C

During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?
1. amniotic egg
2. paired fins
3. jaws
4. swim bladder
5. four-chambered heart

A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5
B) 3, 2, 1, 4, 5
C) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5
D) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5
E) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5

A

Fishes that have swim bladders can regulate their density and, thus, their buoyancy. There are two types of swim bladder: physostomus and physoclistus. The ancestral version is the physostomus version, in which the swim bladder is connected to the esophagus via a short tube (the figure). The fish fills this version by swimming to the surface, taking gulps of air, and directing them into the swim bladder. Air is removed from this version by "belching." The physoclistus version is more derived, and has lost its connection to the esophagus. Instead, gas enters and leaves the swim bladder via special circulatory mechanisms within the wall of the swim bladder.

We should expect the inner wall of the swim bladder to be lined with tissue that is derived from

A) mesoglea.
B) endoderm.
C) mesoderm.
D) neurectoderm.
E) ectoderm.

B

Due to its system of nine air sacs connected to the lungs, the respiratory system of birds is arguably the most effective respiratory system of all air-breathers. Upon inhalation, air first flows into posterior air sacs, then into the lungs, and then into anterior air sacs on the way to being exhaled. Thus, there is one-way flow of air through the lungs, along thousands of tubules called parabronchi.

The movement of air along parabronchi is most similar to the movement of

A) food/waste in a digestive system with separate mouth and anus.
B) the frog tongue during feeding.
C) air in lungs of terrestrial amphibians.
D) air in the lungs of other amniotes.
E) food/waste in a gastrovascular cavity.

A

Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?

A) Hox
B) FOXP2
C) Dlx
D) Otx
E) more than one of these

C

Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?

A) a spiral valve intestine
B) a swim bladder
C) a mineralized, bony skeleton
D) bony fin rays
E) opercula

C

To which of the following are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?

A) osteichthyan scales
B) mammalian scales
C) reptilian scales
D) bird scales
E) chondrichthyan teeth

E

Vertebrates and tunicates share

A) jaws adapted for feeding.
B) a high degree of cephalization.
C) an endoskeleton that includes a skull.
D) the formation of structures from the neural crest.
E) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.

E

What is the significance of the evolution of Hox gene clusters during vertebrate evolution?

A) Novel Hox genes coded for novel vertebrate features, such as jaws, limbs, and large brains.
B) Duplicate Hox genes triggered the formation of neural crest cells and allowed them to disperse throughout the body, forming a variety of structures.
C) Duplication of Hox genes made increased morphological complexity possible.

C

Which one of these chordate groups lacks a post-anal tail and a notochord as adults?

A) lancelets
B) tunicates
C) amphibians
D) mammals
E) reptiles

B

The common ancestor of all these chordate groups EXCEPT the _____ probably had paired appendages.

A) mammals
B) amphibians
C) lampreys
D) ray-finned fishes
E) reptiles

C

Which of these is the only chordate group that has hair?

A) tunicates
B) ray-finned fishes
C) mammals
D) amphibians
E) sharks, rays, and chimaeras

C

Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is false?

A) All deuterostomes are triploblastic and have three tissue layers.
B) All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.
C) All deuterostomes have a coelom.
D) All deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development.

B

Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?

A) Jaws
B) Bone
C) Amniotic egg
D) Exoskeleton

D

True or false? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.

A) True
B) False

B

Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?

A) The presence of an endoskeleton
B) Their habitat
C) Their ability to move
D) Their body plan

D

Which of the following statements about vertebrates is true?

A) All vertebrates have jaws with which to catch their prey.
B) The development of more efficient surfaces for gas exchange in reptiles stimulated expansion into terrestrial habitats.
C) Birds are more related to mammals than to dinosaurs.
D) The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.

D

Which characteristics define a chordate?

A) The presence of four specific morphological traits
B) The ability to live on land
C) The development of an anus from the blastopore
D) The presence of a well-developed circulatory system

A

Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?

A) Notochord
B) Dorsal nerve cord
C) Pharyngeal gill slit
D) Endoskeleton

C

There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.

A) method of locomotion
B) habitat
C) presence or absence of hair
D) method of reproduction
E) size

D

Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in

A) birds.
B) marsupials.
C) placentals.
D) monotremes.
E) Three of the options listed are correct.

E

Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?

A) Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta.
B) Examine the teeth.
C) Look for the presence of milk-producing glands.
D) Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin.
E) Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm

B

Which of the following represents the strongest evidence that two of the three middle ear bones of mammals are homologous to certain reptilian jawbones?

A) They are similar in size to the reptilian jawbones.
B) The mammalian jaw has fewer bones than does the reptilian jaw.
C) Mammals can hear better than reptiles.
D) They are similar in shape to the reptilian jawbones.
E) These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos.

E

Female birds lay their eggs, thereby facilitating flight by reducing weight. Which "strategy" seems most likely for female bats to use to achieve the same goal?

A) feed multiple embryos internally using placentas
B) give birth to underdeveloped young, and subsequently carry them in a pouch that has teats
C) lay shelled eggs
D) refrain from flying throughout pregnancy (about 6 weeks long)
E) limit litters to a single embryo

E

Which feature(s) allow(s) hibernating bats to conserve heat without using calories?

A) fur
B) fat layer below the skin
C) shivering
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

E

Vertebrates and tunicates share

A) a high degree of cephalization.
B) jaws adapted for feeding.
C) an endoskeleton that includes a skull.
D) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
E) the formation of structures from the neural crest.

D

Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials

A) are found in Australia and Africa.
B) lay eggs.
C) have some embryonic development outside the uterus.
D) include only insectivores and herbivores.
E) lack nipples.

C

Which clade does not include humans?

A) synapsids
B) lobe-fins
C) osteichthyans
D) diapsids
E) craniates

D

Identify the correct statement(s) about animal classification.

A) Animals have a cranium, fur, and mammary glands.
B) Reptiles can be defined as ectothermic amniotes.
C) Craniates have a head and neural crest cells.

C

Select the vertebrate taxon or taxa whose origin(s) involved duplication of Hox genes.

A) Gnathostomes
B) Craniates
C) The genus Homo
D) A&B
E) B&C

D

Except for modern ethnic groups in ______, the majority of humans appear to have traces of Neanderthal DNA in their genome.

A) Africa
B) America
C) Asia
D) Europe

A

Research confirms that Neanderthal DNA makes up about ____ of the modern human genome.

A) 1%
B) 4%
C) 10%
D) 25%

B

DNA was isolated from Neanderthal ____ and sequenced so that it could be compared to modern human DNA.

A) teeth
B) bone fragments
C) a combination of teeth, bone, and soft tissue
D) soft tissue

B

Mating is believed to have taken place between modern humans and Neanderthals in ____ about 70,000 years ago.

A) Africa
B) Asia
C) the Middle East
D) Europe

C

The Neanderthal DNA discovered in Homo sapiens is best explained by ____.

A) genetic drift
B) polyploidy
C) a mutation
D) gene flow

D

Which of the following are considered apes?

A) New World monkeys
B) lorises
C) tarsiers
D) orangutans
E) Old World monkeys

D

Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in

A) monotremes.
B) marsupials.
C) placentals.
D) birds.
E) Three of the options listed are correct.

E

Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?

A) Otx
B) FOXP2
C) Dlx
D) Hox
E) more than one of these

C

A unique feature of craniates is _____.

A) a closed circulatory system
B) a vertebral column composed of bone
C) a four-chambered heart
D) the neural crest
E) segmentation

D

What do lampreys, sharks, snakes, turtles, and cats have that a hagfish lacks?

A) legs
B) a cranium
C) vertebrae
D) jaws
E) a notochord at some point in their lives

C

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