AP European History (15th-16th Century)

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52 terms · Topics Include: Renaissance, Reformation, and Religious Wars.

Martin Luther's criticism of the Roman Catholic church was based on:
a.) priests practicing pluralism
b.) indulgences being used as a fund-raising device
c.) inaccurate translations of the Bible
d.) disputes over the sacraments
e.) close associations with secular rulers

B

"In conformity, therefore, to the clear doctrine of the Scripture, we assert, that by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."

A common term for describing the above quote is:
a.) utopia
b.) salvation by faith alone
c.) cuius region cuius religio
d.) predestination
e.) inquisition

D

Which of the following is true of the German Peasants' revolt of 1524-1525?
a.) The revolt was the result of new religious ideas and peasant demands.
b.) The revolt led to the emancipation of the German serfs.
c.) The revolt was organized by Martin Luther to break papal power in the German States.
d.) The peasants were supported by French armies during the revolt.
e.) The revolt was the first in which economic egalitarianism was a major rallying point.

A

Which of the following explorers, sailing under the flag of Portugal, reached the west coast of India in 1498 after rounding the Cape of Good Hope and crossing the Indian Ocean?
a.) John Cabot
b.) Vasco da Gama
c.) Bartolomeu Dias
d.) Amerigo Vespucci
e.) Ferdinand Magellan

B

Martin Luther believed that the most important role for a Christian woman was to:
a.) nurse sick and poor
b.) preach the word of god to the lost
c.) become a wife and mother
d.) lead a life devoted primarily to prayer and contemplation

C

"Religion supplies the pretext and gold the motive."
a.) the launching of the Spanish Armada
b.) the execution of Charles I
c.) the posting of the 95 Theses
d.) new religious order such as the Ursalines & Jesuits
e.) Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the New World

E

Major Protestant and Roman Catholic leaders of the sixteenth century condemned the Anabaptists because Anabaptists:
a.) rejected the Bible as the source of religious truth
b.) favored government enforcement of morality
c.) advocated a complete separation of church and state
d.) restored privileges of the clergy
e.) tried to reconcile Protestant and Catholic teachings

C

Ferdinand and Isabella supported the expulsion or conversion of Muslims and Jews in Spain because:
a.) Ferdinand and Isabella were hostile to religious faiths other than Christianity
b.) Ferdinand and Isabella feared that if they did nothing many Christians would leave Spain
c.) Spanish Muslims and Jews were believed to hinder the economic development of Spain
d.) Spanish Muslims and Jews outnumbered Christians in most large cities in the kingdom
e.) Spanish Muslims and Jews were protected by foreign powers hostile to Spain

A

The leadership of the Dutch revolts (1566-1648) sought all of the following EXCEPT:
a.) the end of the Inquisition
b.) an end to excessive taxation
c.) the elimination of the rule of foreign officials
d.) support from English Catholics
e.) an alliance with French Protestants

D

"Oh highest and most marvelous felicity of man! To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills."

The above quote represents the view of:
a.) Erasmus
b.) Mirandola
c.) Calvin
d.) Loyola

B

John Calvin established the center of his reformed church in:
a.) Lyon
b.) London
c.) Wittenberg
d.) Geneva
e.) Basel

D

The primary purpose of the Peace of Augsburg (1555) was to:
a.) end the wars between the Hapsburgs and the Valois
b.) end the civil war between the Lutherans and Roman Catholics in the German states
c.) end the Thirty Years' War
d.) create better trade relations among German princes
e.) facilitate diplomatic relations between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Turks

B

13. In early modern Europe, which of the following most directly undermined the guild system?
a.) entrepreneurial expansion of manufacturing into the country side
b.) the increased demand for products from the Far East and the New World, such as spices and silk
c.) the imposition of high tariffs on imported goods
d.) the use of credit in business transactions
e.) the expansion of the supply of precious metals

A

14. The sculpture by Bernini shown above celebrates:
a.) a new interest in secular themes
b.) Lutheran veneration of the saints
c.) The Calvinist cult of beauty
d.) The reconciliation of the papacy and the English crown after the Council of Trent
e.) Catholic Reformation mysticism

E

15. Which of the following was the most important factor behind the Price Revolution of the sixteenth century?
a.) Free market policies
b.) population pressures coupled with rising food costs
c.) the massive emigration of Europeans to the New World
d.) the militarization of society and massive war taxes
e.) capitalism

A

16. The revolt in the Netherlands was largely inspired by:
a.) Netherlands and Spain disagreement on how to use the colonial wealth
b.) An economy that was mired in recession
c.) English support for the Dutch rebels
d.) Strict language laws imposed by the Spanish that blocked the use of Dutch from official correspondence
e.) Spanish handling of economic, political, and religious tensions in the Netherlands

B

17. Which of the following cities became the center of High Renaissance (1490-1520)?
a.) Rome
b.) Venice
c.) Florence
d.) Naples
e.) Milan

A

18. Subsistence farming in the 16th century meant that:
a.) there were significant surpluses
b.) famine was reduced significantly
c.) an agricultural revolution was imminent
d.) farming had changed little since the ancient world
e.) people consumed what they raised in any given year

E

19. The French Wars of Religion involved all of the following EXCEPT:
a.) aristocratic resentment at royal authority
b.) antagonism between Calvinists and Catholics
c.) a weakened monarchy following the death of Henry II
d.) Spanish interference in French political affairs
e.) The refusal of the politiques to accept anything other than a purely catholic nation

E

20. During the 16th century, which country was at its height of prestige and power?
a.) Spain
b.) France
c.) England
d.) Russia

A

21. The sack of Rome in 1527 played a significant role in the:
a.) elimination of the papacy as a political force in Italian affairs
b.) end of the High Renaissance
c.) Protestant Reformation
d.) Counter-Reformation
e.) Economic collapse of southern Italy

B

22. The Jesuit order was successful during the Counter-Reformation for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a.) they opened fine schools
b.) they maintained strict discipline over their members
c.) they maintained a measure of independence from the papacy
d.) they served as confessors to many of the Catholic statesmen of Europe
e.) they were committed to missionary activity

C

23. Sir Thomas More accepted martyrdom at the hands of Henry VIII because:
a.) he would not swear the Oath of Supremacy
b.) he thought this would convince Henry of the errors of his ways
c.) Erasmus convinced him that it was correct to seek martyrdom
d.) He was already deathly ill
e.) He could not imagine any sort of criticism of the Catholic Church

A

24. Renaissance sculpture differed from medieval sculpture in that:
a.) It ignored religious themes
b.) Renaissance artists made use of marble
c.) It abhorred realism
d.) It abandoned the classical traditions
e.) It revived the classical tradition of sculpture in the round

E

25. Anabaptists believed in adult baptism based on
a.) their reading of the New Testament
b.) the teachings of Martin Luther
c.) conjecture on the wishes of the apostles
d.) Catholic teachings

A

26. The diet of the average European in 1600 was primarily made up of:
a.) Vegetables
b.) Meat
c.) Dairy
d.) Grains

A

27. As a result of the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church did all of the following EXCEPT:
a.) establish a list of prohibited books
b.) brought an end to the selling of indulgences
c.) end the practice of simony
d.) ban the cult of the saints

D

28. "Paris is worth a mass."
a.) Henry Guise, said attempting to humiliate the Huguenots
b.) Stated by Henry IV, referring to why he converted to Catholicism
c.) The words of Catherine de Medici, hoping to persuade her daughter to marry Henry Navarre
d.) Catholic Mary Queen of Scots attempting to influence Henry IV's politics in favor of Catholics

B

29. "We came here to serve God and King, but also to get rich."
The above quote represents the views of a:
a.) Renaissance humanist
b.) Spanish conquistador
c.) Jesuit missionary
d.) Florentine merchant

B

30. The influx of gold and silver into Spain in the sixteenth century failed to stimulate the economy for all of the following EXCEPT:
a.) losses due to theft by corrupt officials
b.) the high cost of maintaining a vast overseas empire
c.) huge sums were needed to put down internal rebellions within Spain
d.) high inflation

C

31. The Time of Troubles was when:
a.) the boyars gained power
b.) the cruelty of Ivan IV was at its height
c.) there was a succession struggle in Russia
d.) Sweden attacked Poland

C

32. The most striking feature of the Eastern European social structure was:
a.) a strong middle class
b.) intense serfdom
c.) strong Lutheran influence
d.) free peasants

B

33. The circumnavigation of the globe by Ferdinand Magellan proved:
a.) that the world was indeed round
b.) ships could be stocked sufficiently for trans-global voyages
c.) the existence of a direct route to the Spice Islands
d.) the English western colonies could be avoided by going through the straits that still bear Magellan's name

A

34. What Spanish military leader commanded the forces that defeated the Incas?
a.) Francisco Pizarro
b.) Vasco de Gama
c.) Hernando Cortes
d.) Christopher Columbus

A

35. Which of the following supported early sixteenth-century state formation and development?
a.) Shakespeare's Richard III
b.) Boccaccio's Decameron
c.) Cervantes' Don Quixote
d.) Machiavelli's The Prince

C

36. Ivan IV earned the nickname "the Terrible" for his excessively brutal treatment of the:
a.) boyars
b.) peasants
c.) free merchants
d.) palace guards

B

37. The Act of Supremacy
a.) was promoted in Parliament by Thomas More
b.) acknowledged the supremacy of the Pope over the church
c.) legally established Henry VIII as head of the Anglican Church
d.) declared that Phillip II was the most successful in returning Europe to Catholicism

C

38. The Tudor dynasty of England ended in 1603 because
a.) Henry VIII had no male heir to the throne
b.) Elizabeth died
c.) Mary Tudor married Phillip II
d.) Anne Boleyn married Henry VIII

A

39. Henry VIII was given the title Defender of the Faith:
a.) because he opposed the Pope and supported the truth as he understood it in scripture
b.) the English clergy was given refuge in the Tower of London
c.) He rejected the teachings of Calvin
d.) He defended the Catholic Church against Luther

D

40. Ferdinand gained the title of Holy Roman Emperor after:
a.) Phillip II lost the Spanish Armada
b.) He defeated the Schmalkaldic League
c.) France agreed to the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
d.) Charles V abdicated the throne

A

41. The Peasant Revolt in the Netherlands, in which as many as 70,000 peasants were killed took place in:
a.) 1527
b.) 1521
c.) 1525
d.) 1519

C

42. The lifestyles of 16th century Spain are satirized by:
a.) Erasmus in In Praise of Folly
b.) Castiglione in The Courtier
c.) Calvin in The Institutes of Christian Principles
d.) Cervantes in Don Quixote

A

43. The Guise family was influential in France for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a.) they controlled the church
b.) Mary Guise (the Queen of Scots) was married to Francis II
c.) they controlled the army
d.) Catherine de Medici was married Henry Guise

D

44. French Protestants were called:
a.) Anabaptists
b.) Huguenots
c.) Presbyterians
d.) Anglicans

B

45. Twelve to twenty thousand Protestants were killed on August 24, 1572:
a.) during the Sack of Rome
b.) resulting in the Treaty of Tordesillas
c.) in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
d.) during the Defenestration of Prague

C

46. One hundred and fifty towns were allowed the garrisons and given the freedom to worship as Protestants as a result of:
a.) the Edict of Nantes
b.) the Act of Supremacy
c.) the Peace of Augsburg
d.) the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

A

47. The Edict of Nantes, 1598, only benefitted:
a.) Anglicans in England
b.) Burgundian Protestants
c.) Conversos in Spain
d.) French Huguenots

D

48. One result of the War of Three Henry's was:
a.) Henry Guise converted to Protestantism
b.) Valois was out Bourbon was in
c.) Henry III took the throne of France
d.) Henry Navarre revoked Cateau-Cambresis

B

49. All of the following is true of Ivan III EXCEPT:
a.) he declared Muscovy the Third Rome
b.) he was the first to take the title of tsar
c.) he ruled by Divine Right
d.) he killed the heir to his throne

C

50. Renaissance humanism drew its main inspiration from
a.) Religious asceticism
b.) Classical languages and literature
c.) the curricula of medieval universities
d.) political reforms of the Holy Roman Empire
e.) Dante's Inferno

B

51. Which of the following conditions existed in 16th century Europe, particularly in the west:
I. population increased
II. food supply was unreliable
III. the church was the primary unifying factor of Europe
IV. kings had gained more centralized control/power
V. people accepted a stratified, hierarchical
VI. nobles held legal status with rights and privileges
VII. elites and gentry can only accept payment in kind
a.) IV, III, I, V, VII
b.) V, II, I, IV, VI
c.) VI, IV, III, I, VII
d.) VI, VII, II, V

Guess

52. Which of the following is true concerning the enclosures?
a.) Walls were built around towns in order to protect the storehouses.
b.) Catholics kept Protestants out of the territory under the Peace of Augsburg.
c.) They kept peasants from having access to the common grounds.
d.) They were used to keep Henry IV documents safe.

B

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