(like a flower pulls you toward it) *proceeding or acting in a direction toward a center or axis.
Pull Factor: a factor that draws or attracts people to another location.
(like fungus it pushes you away) *proceeding or acting in a direction away from a center or axis.
Push Factor: a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region.
the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on earth.
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found.
describes a place in relation to other places around it.
each half of the globe.
the imaginary line that encircles the globe, dividing the earth into northern and southern halves.
the imaginary line at zero meridian used to measure longitude east to west, and dividing the earth's east and west halves; also called the Greenwich Meridian because it passes through Greenwich, England.
the set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator, and that are used in locating places north and south. The equator is labeled the zero degree line for this.
a set of imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles, dividing it east and west. The prime meridian is labeled the zero degree line for this.
a three-dimensional representation of the earth.
a two-dimensional graphic representation of selected parts of the earth's surface.
a way of maping the earth's surface that reduces distortion caused by converting three dimensions into two dimensions.
a general reference map; a representation of natural and man-made features on the earth.
a series of satellites that orbit more than 100 miles above the earth. Each satellite picks up data in an area 115 miles wide.
geographic information systems
technology that uses digital map information to create a databank; different "data layers" can be combined to produce specialized maps. This allows geographers to analyze different aspects of a specific place to solve problems.
a landmass above water on the earth.
consists of the sun and nine known planets, as well as other celestial bodies that orbit the sun.
the earth's center, made up of iron and nickel; the inner core is solid, and the outer core is liquid.
a rock layer about 1,800 miles thick that is between the earth's crust and the earth's core.
the molten rock material formed when solid rock in the earth's mantle or crust melts.
the thin rock layer making up the earth's surface.
the layers of gases immediately surrounding the earth.
the solid rock portion of the earth's surface.
the waters comprising the earth's surface, including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and vapor in the atmosphere.
all the parts of the earth where plants and animals live, including the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere.
the hypothesis that all continents were once joined into a supercontinent that split apart over millions of years.
the continuous circulation of water among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth.
an area drained by a major river and its tributaries.
the water held under the earth's surface, often in and around the pores of rock.
the level at which rock is saturated.
a naturally formed feature on the surface of the earth.
the earth's surface from the edge of a continent to the deep part of the ocean.
the difference in elevation of a landform from the lowest point to the highest point.
the combined characteristics of landforms and their distribution in a region.
an enormous moving shelf that forms the earth's crust.
a fracture in the earth's crust.
a sometimes violent movement of the earth, produced when tectonic plates grind or slip past each other at a fault.
a device that measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake.
the point on the earth's surface that corresponds to the location in the earth where an earthquake begins.
a way to measure information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake.
a giant ocean wave, caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption, with great destructive power.
a natural event, formed when magma, gases, and water from the lower part of the crust or mantle collect in underground chambers and eventually erupt and pour out of cracks in the earth's surface.
magma that has reached the earth's surface.
ring of fire
the chain of volcanoes that lines the Pacific Rim.
physical and chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth's surface, occurring slowly over many years.
small pieces of rock produced by weathering processes.
natural processes that break rock into smaller pieces.
a process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock.
the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity.
a fan-like landform made of deposited sediment, left by a river that slows as it enters the ocean.
wind-blown silt and clay sediment that produces very fertile soil.
a large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity.
the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers.
a ridge or hill of rock carried and finally deposited by a glacier.
organic material in soil.
either of two times of year when the sun's rays shine directly overhead at noon at the furthest points north or south, and that mark the beginning of summer and winter; in the Northern Hemisphere, the sumer solstice is the longest day and winter solstice is the shortest.
each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn.
the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time.
the typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time.
falling water droplets in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hail.
the land on the leeward side of hills or mountains that gets little rain from the descending dry air.
a storm that form over warm, tropical ocean waters.
a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific.
a powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air.
a heavy snowstorm with winds more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one-quarter mile.
a long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall.
the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air.
a weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the west coast of South America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the eAmericas and produces drought conditions in Australia and Asia.
the layer of gases released by the burning coal and petroleum that traps solar energy, causing global temperature to increase.
the flat treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic Ocean.
permanently frozen ground.
an interdependent community of plants and animals.
a regional ecosystem.
a named characteristic of broadleaf trees, such as maple, oak, birch, and cottonwood.
a forest region located in the Tropical Zone with a heavy concentration of different species of broadleaf trees.
another word for needleleaf trees.
the term for the flat, grassy, mostly treeless plains in the tropical grassland region.
the term used for the temperature grassland region in the Northern Hemisphere.
the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group.
a group that shares a geographic region, a common language, and a sense of identity and culture.
a group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage.
taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a need.
the spread of ideas; inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies.
the heartland or places of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures.
the cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation.
a version of a language that reflects changes in speech patterns due to class, region, or cultural changes.
the belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as creators and maintainers of the universe, as well as the system of beliefs itself.
the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand population.
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country.
the number of deaths per thousand.
infant mortality rate
the number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live births.
rate of natural increase
also called population growth rate-the rate at which population is growing, found by subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate.
a graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population.
push pull factors
push: a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region.
pull: a factor that draws or attracts people to another location.
the average number of people who live in a measurable area, reached by dividing the number of inhabitants in an area by the amount of land they occupy.
the number of organisms a piece of land can support without negative effects.
a political term describing an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs.
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.
the name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy the same territory.
a type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives.
a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen hold political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies.
a type of government in which an individual or a group holds complete political power.
a system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the mean of production.
having no outlet to the sea.
the study of how people use space in cities.
an area that is the center of business and culture and has a large population.
a political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city.
a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs linked economically.
the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result.
central business district
the core of a city, which is almost always based on commercial activity.
the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
the way people produce and exchange goods.
a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. Also called a planned economy.