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* In the yeast signal transduction pathway, after both types of mating cells have released the mating factors and the factors have bound to
specific receptors on the correct cells,

A- the cell membranes fall apart, releasing the mating factors that lead to new yeast cells.

B- the cells then produce the a factor and the factor.

C- one cell nucleus binds the mating factors and produces a new nucleus in the opposite cell.

D- a growth factor is secreted that stimulates mitosis in both cells.

E- binding induces changes in the cells that lead to cell fusion.

E- binding induces changes in the cells that lead to cell fusion.

* What could happen to the target cells in an animal that lack receptors for local regulators?


A- They could develop normally in response to neurotransmitters instead.

B- Hormones would not be able to interact with target cells.

C- They could divide but never reach full size.

D- They would not be able to multiply in response to growth factors from nearby cells.

E- They could compensate by receiving nutrients via an a factor.

D- They would not be able to multiply in response to growth factors from nearby cells.

* Paracrine signaling

A) involves secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging a local regulator into the extracellular fluid.

B) requiresnerve cells to release a neurotransmitter into the synapse.

C) occurs only in paracrine yeast cells.

D) has been found in plants but not animals.

E) involves mating factors attaching to target cells and causing production of new paracrine cells.

A) involves secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging a local regulator into the extracellular fluid.

* From the perspective of the cell receiving the message, the three stages of cell signaling are

A) the paracrine, local, and synaptic stages.

B) signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response.

C) signal reception, nucleus disintegration, and new cell generation.

D) the alpha, beta, and gamma stages.

E) signal reception, cellular response, and cell division.

B) signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response.

* The process of transduction usually begins

A) when the chemical signal is released from the alpha cell.

B) when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.

C) after the target cell divides.

D) after the third stage of cell signaling is completed.

E) when the hormone is released from the gland into the blood.

B) when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.

* When a cell releases a signal molecule into the environment and a number of cells in the immediate vicinity respond, this type of signaling is

A) typical of hormones.
B) autocrine signaling.
C) paracrine signaling.
D) endocrine signaling.
E) synaptic signaling.

C) paracrine signaling.

* Synaptic signaling between adjacent neurons is like hormone signaling in which of the following ways?

A) It sends its signal molecules through the blood.

B) It sends its signal molecules quite a distance.

C) It requires calcium ions.

D) It requires binding of a signalingmolecule to a receptor.

E) It persists over a long period.

D) It requires binding of a signalingmolecule to a receptor.

A small molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, usually a larger one
A) is called a signal transducer.
B) is called a ligand.
C) is called a polymer.
D) seldom is involved in hormonal signaling.
E) usually terminates a signal reception.

B) is called a ligand.

Which of the following is (are) true of ligand-gated ion channels?
A) They are important in the nervous system.
B) They lead to changes in sodium and calcium concentrations in cells.
C) They open or close in response to a chemical signal.
D) Only A and B are true.
E) A, B, and C are true.

E) A, B, and C are true.

Of the following, a receptor protein in a membrane that recognizes a chemical signal is most similar to
A) the active site of an allosteric enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate.
B) RNA specifying the amino acids in a polypeptide.
C) a particular metabolic pathway operating within a specific organelle.
D) an enzyme with an optimum pH and temperature for activity.
E) genes making up a chromosome.

A) the active site of an allosteric enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate.

What would be true for the signaling system in an animal cell that lacks the ability to produce GTP?
A) It would not be able to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.
B) It could activate only the epinephrine system.
C) It would be able to carry out reception and transduction, but would not be able to respond to a signal.
D) Only A and C are true.
E) A, B, and C are true.

A) It would not be able to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.

* Thyroid hormones bind to _____ receptors.

A. G-protein-linked
B. tyrosine-kinase
C. plasma membrane ion-channel
D. intracellular
E. steroid

D. intracellular

* G proteins and G-protein-linked receptors

A) are found only in animal cells, and only embedded in or located just beneath the cell's membrane.

B) are found only in bacterial cells, embedded in the cell's plasma membrane only.

C) are thought to have evolved very early, because of their similar structure and function in a wide variety of modern organisms.

D) probably evolved from an adaptation of the citric acid cycle.

E) are not widespread in nature and were unimportant in the evolution of eukaryotes.

C) are thought to have evolved very early, because of their similar structure and function in a wide variety of modern organisms.

* Membrane receptors that attach phosphates to specific animo acids in proteins are

A) not found in humans.
B) called receptor tyrosine-kinases.
C) aclass of GTP G-protein signal receptors.
D) associated with several bacterial diseases in humans.
E) important in yeast mating factors that contain amino acids.

B) called receptor tyrosine-kinases.

* Up to 60% of all medicines used today exert their effects by influencing what structures in the cell membrane?

A) tyrosine-kinases receptors
B) ligand-gated ion channel receptors
C) growth factors
D) G proteins
E) cholesterol

D) G proteins

* Which of the following are chemical messengers that pass through the plasma membrane of cells & have receptor molecules in the cytoplasm?

A. Insulin
B. Testosterone
C. cAMP
D. Ephinephrine

B. Testosterone

* Testosterone functions inside a cell by

A) acting as a signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins.

B) binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes.

C) acting as a steroid signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins.

D) becoming a second messenger that inhibits adenylyl cyclase.

E) coordinating a phosphorylation cascade that increases glycogen metabolism.

B) binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes.

* Which is true of transcription factors?

A) They regulate the synthesis of DNA in response to a signal.
B) Some transcribe ATP into cAMP.
C) They initiate the epinephrine response in animal cells.
D) They control which genes are expressed.
E) They are needed to regulate the synthesis of lipids in the cytoplasm.

D) They control which genes are expressed.

* One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming
dimmers, adding phosphate groups, then activating relay proteins. Which type does this?
A) G protein-linked receptor
B) ligand-gated ion channels
C) steroid receptors
D) receptor tyrosine kinases

D) receptor tyrosine kinases

Chemical signal pathways
A) operate in animals, but not in plants.
B) are absent in bacteria, butare plentiful in yeast.
C) involve the release of hormones into the blood.
D) often involve the binding of signal molecules to a protein on the surface of a target cell.
E) use hydrophilic molecules to activate enzymes.

D) often involve the binding of signal molecules to a protein on the surface of a target cell.

* The receptors for a group of signaling molecules known as growth factors are often
A) ligand-gated ion channels.
B) G-protein-linked receptors.
C) cyclic AMP.
D) receptor tyrosine kinases.
E) neurotransmitters.

D) receptor tyrosine kinases.

* In general, a signal transmitted via phosphorylation of a series of proteins
A) brings a conformational change to eachprotein.
B) requires binding of a hormone to a cytosol receptor.
C) cannot occur in yeasts because they lack protein phosphatases.
D) requires phosphorylase activity.
E) allows target cells to change their shape and therefore their activity.

A) brings a conformational change to eachprotein.

Sutherland discovered that epinephrine
A) signals bypass the plasma membrane of cells.
B) lowers blood glucose by binding to liver cells.
C) interacts with insulin inside muscle cells.
D)interacts directly with glycogen phosphorylase.
E) elevates the cytosolic concentration of cyclic AMP.

E) elevates the cytosolic concentration of cyclic AMP.

Which of the following is the best explanation for the inability of an animal cell to reduce the Ca2+ concentration in its cytosol compared with the extracellular fluid?
A) blockage of the synaptic signal
B) loss of transcription factors
C) insufficient ATP levels in the cytoplasm
D) low oxygen concentration around the cell
E) low levels of protein kinase in the cell

C) insufficient ATP levels in the cytoplasm

* The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is
A) phosphorylase.
B) phosphatase.
C) protein kinase.
D) ATPase.
E) protease.

C) protein kinase.

* Which of the following describes cell communication systems?
A) Cell signaling evolved more recently than systems such as the immune system of vertebrates.
B) Communicating cells are usually close together.
C) Most signal receptors are bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.
D) Lipid phosphorylation is a major mechanism of signal transduction.
E) In response to a signal, the cell may alter activities by changes in cytosol activity or in transcription of RNA.

E) In response to a signal, the cell may alter activities by changes in cytosol activity or in transcription of RNA.

* The toxin of Vibrio cholerae causes profuse diarrhea because it
A) modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion.
B) decreases the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, making the cells hypotonic to the
intestinal cells.
C) binds with adenylyl cyclase and triggers the formation of cAMP.
D) signals inositol trisphosphate to become a secondmessenger for the release of calcium.
E) modifies calmodulin and activates a cascade of protein kinases.

A) modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion.

* Which of the following would be inhibited by a drug that specifically blocks the addition of phosphate groups to proteins?
A) G-protein-linked receptor signaling
B) ligand-gated ion channel signaling
C) adenylyl cyclase activity
D) phosphatase activity
E) receptor tyrosine kinase activity

E) receptor tyrosine kinase activity

Which of the following most likely would be an immediate result of growth factor binding to its receptor?
A) protein kinase activity
B) adenylyl cyclase activity
C) GTPase activity
D) protein phosphatase activity
E) phosphorylase activity

A) protein kinase activity

An inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity would have which of the following effects?
A) block the response of epinephrine
B) decrease the amount of cAMP in the cytoplasm
C) block the activation of G proteins in response to epinephrine binding to its receptor
D) prolong the effect of epinephrine by maintaining elevated cAMP levels in the cytoplasm
E) block the activation of protein kinase A

D) prolong the effect of epinephrine by maintaining elevated cAMP levels in the cytoplasm

Adenylyl cyclase has the opposite effect of which of the following?
A) protein kinase
B) protein phosphatase
C) phosphodiesterase
D) phosphorylase
E) GTPase

C) phosphodiesterase

Caffeine is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Therefore, the cells of a person who has recently consumed coffee would have increased levels of
A) phosphorylated proteins.
B) GTP.
C) cAMP.
D) adenylyl cyclase.
E) activated G proteins.

C) cAMP.

If a pharmaceutical company wished to design a drug to maintain low blood sugar levels, one approach might be to
A) design a compound that blocks epinephrine receptor activation.
B) design a compound that inhibits cAMP production in liver cells.
C) design a compound to block G-protein activity in liver cells.
D) design a compound that inhibits phosphorylase activity.
E) All of the above are possible approaches.

E) All of the above are possible approaches.

An inhibitor of which of the following could be used to block the release of calcium from the
endoplasmic reticulum?
A) tyrosine kinases
B) serine/threonine kinases
C) phosphodiesterase
D) phospholipase C
E) adenylyl cyclase

D) phospholipase c

Which of the following statements is true?

A) When signal molecules first bind to receptor tyrosine kinases, the receptors phosphorylate a number of nearby molecules.

B) In response to some G-protein-mediated signals, a special type of lipid molecule associated with the plasma membrane is cleaved to form IP3 and calcium.

C) In most cases, signal molecules interact with the cell at the plasma membrane and then enter the cell and eventually the nucleus.

D) Toxins such as those that cause botulism and cholera interfere with the ability of activated G proteins to hydrolyze GTP to GDP, resulting in phosphodiesterase activity in the absence of an appropriate signal molecule.

E) Protein kinase A activation is one possible result of signal molecules binding to G protein- linked receptors.

E) Protein kinase A activation is one possible result of signal molecules binding to G protein- linked receptors.

Which of the following is a correct association?
A) kinase activity and the addition of a tyrosine
B) phosphodiesterase activity and the removal of phosphate groups
C) GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP
D) phosphorylase activity and the catabolism of glucose
E) adenylyl cyclase activity and the conversion of cAMP to AMP

C) GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP

* One inhibitor of cGMP is Viagra. It provides a signal that leads to dilation of blood vessels and increase of blood in the penis, facilitating erection. cGMP is inhibited, therefore the signal is prolonged. The original signal that is now inhibited would have
A) hydrolyzed cGMP to GMP.
B) hydrolyzed GTP to GDP.
C) phosphorylated GDP.
D) dephosphorylated cGMP.
E) removed GMP from the cell.

A) hydrolyzed cGMP to GMP.

* A drug designed to inhibit the response of cells to testosterone would almost certainly result in which of the following?
A) lower cytoplasmic levels of cAMP
B) an increase in receptor tyrosine kinase activity
C) a decrease in transcriptional activity of certain genes
D) an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration
E) a decrease in G-protein activity

C) a decrease in transcriptional activity of certain genes

* Which of the substances below is a protein that can hold several other relay proteins as it binds to an activated membrane receptor?
A) active transcription factor
B) third messenger
C) ligand
D) scaffolding protein
E) protein kinase

D) scaffolding protein

As humans, we have receptors for two kinds of beta adrenergic compounds such as
catecholamines. Cardiac muscle cells have beta 1 receptors that promoteincreased heart rate. Some drugs that slow heart rate are called beta blockers. Smooth muscle cells, however, have beta 2 receptors which mediate muscle relaxation. Blockers of these effects are sometimes used to treat asthma.
The description above illustrates which of the following?

A) Just because a drug acts on one type of receptor does not mean that it will act on another type.
B) Beta blockers can be used effectively on any type of muscle.
C) Beta adrenergic receptors must be in the cytosol ifthey are going to influence contraction and relaxation.
D) The chemical structures of the beta 1 and beta 2 receptors must have the same active sites.

A) Just because a drug acts on one type of receptor does not mean that it will act on another type.

The use of beta 2 antagonist drugs may be useful in asthma because
A) they may increase constriction of the skeletal muscle of the chest wall.
B) they may increase heart rate and therefore allow the patient to get more oxygen circulated.
C) they may dilate the bronchioles by relaxing their smooth muscle.
D) they may override the beta blockers that the patient is already taking.
E) they may obstruct all G protein-mediated receptors.

C) they may dilate the bronchioles by relaxing their smooth muscle.

* What are scaffolding proteins?
A) ladder-like proteins that allow receptor-ligand complexes to climb through cells from one position to another
B) microtubular protein arrays that allow lipid-soluble hormones to get from the cell membrane to the nuclear pores
C) large molecules to which several relay proteins attach to facilitate cascade effects
D) relay proteins that orient receptors and their ligands in appropriate directions to facilitate their complexing
E) proteins thatcan reach into the nucleus of a cell to affect transcription

C) large molecules to which several relay proteins attach to facilitate cascade effects

* The termination phase of cell signaling requires which of the following?
A) removal of the receptor
B) activation of adifferent set of relay molecules
C) converting ATP to camp
D) reversing the binding of signal molecule to the receptor
E) apoptosis

D) reversing the binding of signal molecule to the receptor

Why has C. elegansproven to be a useful model for understanding apoptosis?

A) The animal has very few genes, so that finding those responsible is easier than in a more complex organism.
B) The nematode undergoes a fixed and easy-to-visualize number of apoptotic events during its normal development.
C) This plant has a long-studied aging mechanism that has made understanding its death just a last stage.
D) While the organism ages, its cells die progressively until the whole organism is dead.
E) All of its genes are constantly being expressed so allof its proteins are available from each cell.

B) The nematode undergoes a fixed and easy-to-visualize number of apoptotic events during its normal development.

The main proteases involved in apoptosis are
A) ced-3 and ced-4.
B) inactive.
C) cytochromes.
D) caspases.
E) G proteins.

D) caspases.

Human caspases can be activated by
A) irreparable DNA damage or protein misfolding.
B) infrequency of cell division.
C) high concentrations of vitamin C.
D) a death-signaling ligand being removed from its receptor.
E) electron transport.

A) irreparable DNA damage or protein misfolding.

If an adult person has a faulty version of the human-analog to ced-4 ofthe nematode, which of the following might more likely result?
A) neurodegeneration
B) activation of a developmental pathway found in the worm but not in humans
C) a form of cancer in which there is insufficient apoptosis
D) webbing of fingers or toes
E) excess skin exfoliation

C) a form of cancer in which there is insufficient apoptosis

Phosphorylation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because
A) they are species specific.
B) they always lead to the same cellular response.
C) they amplify the original signal manyfold.
D) they counter the harmful effects of phosphatases.
E) the number of molecules used is small and fixed.

C) they amplify the original signal manyfold.

Binding of a signaling molecule to which type of receptor leads directly to a change in distribution of ions on opposite sides of the membrane?
A) receptor tyrosine kinase
B) G protein-coupled receptor
C) phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinase dimer
D) ligand-gated ion channel
E) intracellular receptor

D) ligand-gated ion channel

The activation of receptor tyrosine kinases is characterized by
A) dimerization and phosphorylation.
B) IP3binding.
C) a phosphorylation cascade.
D) GTP hydrolysis.
E) channel protein shape change.

A) dimerization and phosphorylation.

Which observation suggested to Sutherland the involvement of a second messenger in epinephrine's effect on liver cells?
A) Enzymatic activity was proportional to the amount of calcium added to a cell-free extract.
B) Receptor studies indicated that epinephrine was a ligand.
C) Glycogen breakdown was observed only when epinephrine was administered to intact cells.
D) Glycogen breakdown was observed when epinephrine and glycogen phosphorylase were combined.
E) Epinephrine was known to have different effects on different types of cells.

C) Glycogen breakdown was observed only when epinephrine was administered to intact cells.

Protein phosphorylation is commonly involved with all of the following except
A) regulation of transcription by extracellular signal molecules.
B) enzyme activation.
C) activation of G protein-coupled receptors.
D) activation of receptor tyrosine kinases.
E) activation of protein kinase molecules.

C) activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

Lipid-soluble signal molecules, such as testosterone, cross the membranes of all cells but affect only target cells because
A)only target cells retain the appropriate DNA segments.
B) intracellular receptors are present only in target cells.
C) most cells lack the Y chromosome required.
D) only target cells possess the cytosolic enzymes that transduce the testosterone.
E) only in target cells is testosterone able to initiate the phosphorylation cascade leading to activated transcription factor.

B) intracellular receptors are present only in target cells.

* The cleavage of glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase releases _____.

glucose-1-phosphate

* Epinephrine acts as a signal molecule that attaches to _____ proteins.

G-Protein Linked Receptor

* Which of these is a receptor for calcium ions?

calmodulin

* Which of these is NOT correct?

A- Kinases are enzymes that phosphorylate other molecules.

B- Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin.

C- Ion channels are found on both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum.

D- Phospholipase C catalyzes the formation of IP3.

E- Tyrosine-kinase receptors consist of two polypeptides that join when activated by a signal molecule.

B- Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin.

* A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere with the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by the binding of a signal molecule to _____ receptors.


A- intracellular

B-steroid

C- ion-channel

D- G-protein-linked

E- receptor tyrosine kinase

D- G-protein-linked

* At puberty, an adolescent female body changes in both structure and function of several organ systems, primarily under the influence of changing concentrations of estrogens and other steroid hormones. How can one hormone, such as estrogen, mediate so many effects?

Estrogen binds to specific receptors inside many kinds of cells, each of which have different responses to its binding.

* Which of the following describes the events of apoptosis?

The cell's DNA and organelles become fragmented, the cell shrinks and forms blebs, and the cell's parts are packaged in vesicles that are digested by specialized cells.

What are the second messengers?

Two important are cyclic AMP and calcium ions

Epi >
cAMP >
G Protein >
activate enzyme adenylyl cyclase >
converts ATP into cAMP >
cAMP diffuses through cell and triggers more steps in pathway >
i.e.: protein kinase

...

This time we will show a receptor tyrosine kinase, but G-protein-linked receptors can also initiate release of calcium ions.

The signal molecule docks with the receptor and activates an enzyme called phospholipase C. The enzyme cleaves a small molecule called inositol trisphosphate— IP3— from a certain kind of membrane phospholipid.

IP3 docks with a calcium channel on the endoplasmic reticulum.

The channel opens, releasing calcium ions into the cytoplasm, where they activate proteins that carry out cell responses.

...

* What role does a transcription factor play in a signal transduction pathway?
A. By binding a plasma membrane receptor it initiates a cascade
B. It relays a signal from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane
C. It activates relay proteins
D. By binding to DNA it triggers the transcription of a specific gene
E. It is a plasma membrane protein that binds signal molecules

D. By binding to DNA it triggers the transcription of a specific gene

* A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.

signal molecule

* Which of these acts as a second messenger?

cAMP (cyclic AMP)

* Calcium ions that act as second messengers are stored in _____.

endoplasmic reticula

* _____ catalyzes the production of _____, which then opens an ion channel that releases _____ into the cell's cytoplasm.

Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+

* A protein kinase activating many other protein kinases is an example of _____.

amplification

8 A signal molecule is also known as a(n) _____.

ligand

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