Behavioral Analysis Midterm

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Behavior Chain

Specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition; ex: vending machine

Behavior Chain with Limited Hold

must be preformed correctly within a specified amount of time; ex: atm machine

5 Dimensions of Shaping

1.Topography
2.Frequency
3.Latency
4.Duration
5.Amplitude/Magnitude

4 Types of Chaining

1.Forward Chaining
2.Total-Task Chaining
3.Backward Chaining
4.Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead

Forward Chaining

taught in naturally occurring order

Total-Task Chaining

uses forward chaining, steps trained in every session

Backward Chaining

begins with last step of a chain

Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead

begins with last step, not every step is taught

Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy (BCIS)

commonly used during mand training; taking a certain piece away so subject must ask for it to complete task

Task Analysis

Breaks down these steps into a discrete unit

Conditioned Reinforcement

when behavior is strengthened by events that have an effect because of conditioned history

Conditioned Reinforcer

When an arbitrary event increases the frequency of an operant

Generalized Reinforcement

doesn't depend on deprivation or satiation; ex: praise, attention, affection, approval, status

generalized conditioned reinforcer

any even of stimulus that's associated with or exchangeable for, many sources of primary reinforcement

Generalized Conditioned Reinforcement

Generalized reinforcement does not depend on deprivation or satiation for any specific reinforcer

Establishing Conditioned Reinforcement

1.New-response method
2.Established-response method:

New-response method

Pairing a distinctive stimulus (a clicking sound) with unconditioned reinforcement; after several pairings, present the stimulus alone and use to shape a new response

Established-response method

operant that produces unconditioned reinforcment accompanied by distinctive stimulus

Menus

Using a menu where the participant can choose their reward is very effective

Homogeneous Chains

Operant chains when a similar response requirement is in effect in all components.

Heterogeneous chain

requires different responses in each link

Chain schedule of reinforcement

Two or more simple schedules;Each of which is presented sequentially and has own SD; final or terminal link in this chain results in primary reinforcement

___ ___ does function as a conditioned reinforcer; ___ ___ does not

1.Good news
2.bad news

Frequency of Primary Reinforcement

As unconditioned reinforcement frequency goes up, strength ofconditioned reinforcer increases to a maximum

Variability of Primary Reinforcement

A more varying unconditioned reinforcement will increase effectiveness of conditioned reinforcer

Establishing Operations

Events that establish an unconditioned reinforcement will enhance the effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer

Delay to Primary Reinforcement

On a chain schedule, longer delay between discriminative stimulus and unconditioned reinforcement, less effective it is as a conditioned reinforcer.

Delay-reduction hypothesis (DRH)

Stimuli closer in time to positive reinforcement, or further in time from an aversive event, are more effective conditioned reinforcers

Biological Context

Behavioral principles of conditioning- universal; differ from species to species - different species have different prepared responses; conditioning is biological process

Operant/Respondent Interactions

defined by experimental producers that produce them; intrusion of reflexive behavior can occur during operant conditioning; often embedded in arrangement of operant contingencies

Respondent Responses can ___ Operant Conditioning

Redominate

4 types of respondent responses

1. Instinctive Drift
2. Sign Tracking
3. Autoshaping
4. Negative Automaintenance

Instinctive Drift

behavior is said to drift toward behavioral roots; species characteristic behavior patterns that become progressively more invasive during training

Sign Tracking

a sign that signals a biologically relevant event

Autoshaping

ex: if food is delivered contingent upon a peck, elicited peck can be operantly reinforced

Negative Automaintenance

respondent contingency of sing followed by food delivery is in place but an actual peck to the lit response key cancels food delivery for that trial

Adjunctive Behavior

on certain schedules, an organism may emit behavior patterns that aren't required by contingency of reinforcement; ex: batting routines

Using Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior

reinforcing a different behavior than the target and the collateral effect of that reinforcement contingency on the target behavior

Differential Reinforcement

reinforcement is provided for responses that share a predetermined dimension or quality (functionally equivalent); reinforcement withheld for responses that don't demonstrate predetermined quality (extinction); response differentiation: emergence of new response class (replacement behavior)

5 types of differential reinforcement

1. incompatible behavior (DRI)
2.Alternative Behavior (DRA)
3. Other Behavior (DRO)
4. Low Rate Behavior (DRL)
5. High Rate Behavior (DRH)

DRI & DRA

reinforcement schedule which occurrence of behavior topographically incompatible with target behavior is selected for reinforcement

Alternative Behaviors in DRI & DRA...

already exist in repertoire; requires equal or less effort; occurrence rate allow for opportunities for reinforcement; likely to be reinforced in natural environment

DRO

Reinforcement contingent upon non-occurrence of problem behavior; essentially reinforcing any & every behavior other than target; based on time schedule

Never use ___ without using ___ ___

1. extinction
2. Differential Reinforcement

2 types of DRO

1. Interval DRO
2. Momentary DRO

2 types of Interval DRO

1. Fixed-Interval DRO
2. Variable-Interval DRO

Variable-Interval DRO

Interval of time are varying and unpredictable, random delivery

Fixed-Interval DRO

establish an time interval; deliver reinforcement at end of interval if problem behavior didn't occur

2 types of Momentary DRO

1. Fixed-Momentary DRO
2.Variable-Momentary DRO

Guidelines for using DRO

Recognize limitations; set initial intervals that assure frequent reinforcement; don't accidentally reinforce other undesirable behaviors; gradually increase interval; combine DRO procedures; extend application to other settings & times of day

DRL

Schedule of reinforcement that produced low rates of responding; contingent upon occurrence of target behavior

3 types of DRL Schedules

1. Full Session
2.Interval
3.Spaced-Responding

Full-Session DRL

reinforcement delivered at end of session, if behavior occurred at set criterion

Interval DRL

divide session into intervals

Spaced-Responding DRL

reinforcement is delivered following occurrence of a behavior following specified time interval

Extinction

Process of discontinuing a reinforcement contingency for a previously reinforced response; behavior that was previously reinforced eventually decreases/stops

In extinction we do not ___ ___ __ ___; we discontinue the ___ ___

1. stop reinforcing a behavior
2. reinforcing contingency

We do not extinguish ___; we extinguish the ___, in a specific context

1.people
2.behavior

Extinction Burst

an initial increase in rate of response when reinforcement is first discontinued

Response Topography

increase in operant variability or variations in form or topography as extinction proceeds

Behavioral Effects of Extinction

1. Emotional Responses
2. Resistance to extinction

Spontaneous Recovery

after a session of extinction, response rate may be close to operant level

Forgetting vs. Extinction

Forgetting is behavior change due to passage of time without opportunity to perform behavior; Extinction is behavior change due to response performance without reinforcement

Respondent Extinction

presenting CS without or no longer in relationship with the US

Topography vs. Function

not the function of a behavior that can be a problem, but the topography; necessary to create an equivalent replacement behavior

Non-Contingent Reinforcement

reinforcement is delivered after a fixed or variable amount of time regardless of behavior

Partial Reinforcement Effect (PRE)

generates greater resistance to extinction (resistance to change)

Behavioral Momentum

behavior persisting in the presence of a particular stimulus despite disruptive factors

Progressive Schedules of Reinforcement

systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the participants behavior

Escalating Schedules of Reinforcement

systematically increases reinforcement contingent on behavior

Compound/Complex Schedules

Two or more schedules are combined, animals and humans are sensitive to such complexities

Concurrent Schedule of Reinforcement (CONC)

when (a) 2 or more contingencies of reinforcement (b) operate independently and simultaneously (c) for 2 or more behaviors

Discriminative Schedules of Reinforcement- Multiple

present 2 or more basic schedules in an alternating, random sequence, occur successively and independently, SD is correlated w/ each basic schedule and presented as long as schedule is in effect

Non-discriminative Schedules of Reinforcement - mixed

identical to multiple schedules, except the mixed has no discriminative stimuli correlated with independent schedules
ex: thinking while driving

Chained Schedules of Reinforcement

similar to multiple; except: basic schedules occur in specific order, behavior may be same for all elements of chain or different behaviors required for different elements, conditioned reinforcement for first behavior in chain is presentation of second element, etc.

Tandem Reinforcement Schedules

similar to chained schedule except dosen't have discriminative stimulus

Differential Reinforcement

reward is contingent on performing behavior within specific period of time
ex: due dates for classes

Schedule of Reinforcement

a prescription that states how and when discriminative stimuli and behavioral consequences will be presented

Time and responses are important in schedules or reinforcement:

long term arrangement: temporal dynamics, rate and temporal patterns of responding, probability of responding

Rule for presentation of stimuli that precede operants and consequences

fundamental determinants of behavior, basis for behavioral economics & pharmacology

3 ways to use schedules

1. Application
2. Analysis
3. Synthesis

Application

ask questions about behavior, change behavior

Analysis

make sense of behavior

Synthesis

Create new behavior

Patterns of response

develop on schedules of reinforcement; come about after animal has experience w. the contingency of reinforcement defined by particular schedule

Subjects are exposed to a schedule of reinforcement following an ___ period and behavior typically settles into a ___ or ___-___ ____

1. acquisition
2. consistent
3. Steady-State Performance

5 Response based schedules of reinforcement

1. Fixed Ratio
2. Variable Ratio
3. Random Ratio
4.Progressive Ratio

2 Time & Response Based Schedules

1. Fixed Interval
2. Variable Interval

Fixed time schedule of reinforcement

reinforcer is delivered after a set amount of time regardless of behavior

Superstitious Behavior

behaving as if a specific response is required to produce reinforcement; FR

Continuous Reinforcement (CRF)

reinforcement is delivered after every response; necessary for shaping and maintaining a difficult behavior

Intermittent Behavior (IRF)

More resistant to extinction (amount of time before behavior is extinguished)

Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)

delivers reinforcement after a fixed number of responses is make; cumulative record of behavior looks like stairs

FR schedules produce...

rapid run of responses followed by reinforcement, then a pause in responding

Post-reinforcement pause (PRP)

name of pause after consumption of renfrocer and before next ratio of responding begins; plat part of cumulative record

The length of the ___ is proportionate to the length of the ___

1.PRP
2.Interval

Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)

number of responses required for reinforcement changes after each reinforcer is presented; average # of responses used to define schedule; high rate of response

Ratio Schedule Implications

possible to set ratio so high that an animal will spend all of its time working for a small reinforcer
ex: gambling

Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)

an operant is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed; scalloping

Scalloping

characteristic pattern of responding in FI, gradual increase in rate of responding, with responding occurring at a high rate, just before reinforcement is available

Variable Interval schedule (VI)

responses are reinforced after a variable amount of time has passed. The time for each reinforcement changes but there is an average time

3- Term Contingency

Antecedent- Behavior- Consequence

Discriminative Stimuli (SD)

increases frequency of type of response because stimuli has been learned to mean a higher chance of reinforcement

S-Delta

decrease in frequency of a type of response because stimuli has been learned to lead to punishment

Establishing/ Motivating Operation (EO/MO)

an environmental event that first establishes or abolishes the reinforcing or punishing effect of another event; evokes or abates behaviors related with that event

2 types of EO

1. Conditioned
2. Unconditioned

3 types of unconditioned EO

1. Surrogate
2. Reflexive
3. Transitive

Unconditioned EO

unlearned states of deprivation or aversion stimulation;
ex: thirst, hunger

Surrogate (CMO-S)

acquire motivating effect as result of being paired with another UMO, produce effects identical to original MO

Reflexive (CMO-R)

Previously neutral stimuli that acquire motivating functions by being correlated with some form of worsening or improvement

Transitive (CMO-T)

previously neutral stimuli whose occurrence alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes responses that produce or suppress that stimulus

3 Times Antecedents Matter

1. When they signal consequences
2. When they change the value of consequences
3. When they evoke/abate behavior

Antecedents ___ do not ___ behavior

1. alone
2. Cause

To understand antecedents you have to look for ___

Consequences

Antecedents without ___ are mere noise

consequences

If you cannot change ___... change antecedents related to those ___

consequences

Time Out

In order to be effective, time-in must be reinforcing, if so your creating deprivation of time-in

Blocked Response

attempting to teach an individual with ID to request items that are needed to complete activities; directly manipulating surrogate EO

Selection by Consequences

How we learn, trial and error

Law of Effect

you are more likely to engage in behavior that is followed by a reinforcing stimuli

Reinforcement

increase the likelihood of a behavior occurrence

3-Term Contingency

SD/S-delta - response - Consequence
Occasion - evoked/emitted - maintains

Behavior is ___ NOT ___

1. evoked/emitted
2. elicited

3 environmental stimuli that occasion behaviors

1. Establishing Operation (EO/MO)
2. Discriminative Stimuli (SD)
3. S- Delta

3 Defining features of DS and S-Delta

1. Momentary effectiveness of particular reinforcement type
2. Increases frequency of particular type of response
3. stimulus correlated w/ increase in frequency w/ which type of response has been followed by reinforcement

SD

sets the occasion for a behaviors occurrence ( signals availability of reinforcement) ; ex: a person, environment; individual engaging in the behavior

S-Delta

sets the occasion for a behavior NOT to occur; in presence of this stimulus, certain behaviors do not lead to reinforcement and may lead to punishment

Stimulus Control

responding in the presence of a discriminative stimulus; never responding in presence of s-delta

Satiation

State of being satisfied; decreases effectiveness of SD

Deprivation

lack of something necessary; increases effectiveness of a SD

Establishing Operation

any change in the environment that alters effectiveness of a object or event as reinforcement and simultaneously alters the momentary frequency of the behavior that's been followed by that reinforcement

4-Term Contingency *

EO - SD/S-delta - Response - Consequence

3 vs 4- Term Continency

4-term may involve some inference in the analysis; When EO directly manipulating, 4-term in necessary

Capturing EO

capitalizing on the effects of a naturally occurring EO in terms of reinforcement

Contriving EO

when one directly manipulates the environment to increase specific stimulus as a reinforcer

Topography

the form of the behavior

Functional Analysis

determining the consequence of the behavior. What is the contingency?

4 Basic Contingencies

1. Identify organism observed for behavior change
2. Identify specific behavior
3. What happens to the behavior?
4. What is the consequence?

4 Consequences

1. Positive Reinforcement
2. Negative Reinforcement
3. Positive Punishment
4. Negative Punishment

Positive reinforcement

add stimulus, increase behavior
ex: getting a drink from a vending machine

Negative reinforcement

remove adverse stimulus, increase behavior
ex: opening an umbrella to get out of the rain

Positive Punishment

Add stimulus, decrease behavior

Negative Punishment

remove adverse stimulus, decrease behavior

SD

Discriminative Stimulus; occasions behavior likely to be reinforced

Operant Class

behaviors which can produce same outcome
ex: opening a bag with hands or cutting bag open

Repertoire

everything an organism can do, collection of complex behaviors (behaviors are collections of responses)

Reinforcement Contingencies

relationship between the events that set the occasion fro behavior, the operant class, and the consequences that follow the behavior
ex: SD => B => C

You reinforce an ___ not an ___

1. behavior
2. organism

Only stimuli that ___ behavior are ___

1. increase
2.reinforcers

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