The distillation of a basic idea or parti into its most significant or telling parts
branch of philosophy which studies the nature of beauty and taste.
not revealing structural or constructional aspects of an object
The period of the great classical civilizations, i.e. the Greeks and Romans
opposition, contrast, the opposite of a thesis; the second term in a dialectical argument.
resembling or borrowing the form of human beings
part of ancient Greece, known for pastoral life style, hence a state of blissful, idyllic pastoral life. .
lit. "speaking architecture", i.e., architecture which directly expresses its content.
The use of ornament (the orders, string courses, cornices, panels) etc. to make legible the discrete parts of a systems, and to permit an understanding of the relationship of parts to the whole
a real or imaginary line that structures a linear relationship of objects in space
In ancient Roman architecture, a large meeting hall most often used for the law courts, characterized by an oblong plan divided into a nave with two or more side aisles, the former higher and wider than the latter and generally lit by clerestory windows; usually terminated by an apse. In Christian Architecture, the basilica is often transformed into a Latin Cross plan with the addition of a transept.
A semi-circular or polygonal projection of a church
The central section of the church, where the worshippers stand or sit.
A passageway separated by an arcade, running parallel to the nave of a church
The part of a cross-shaped church that extends at right angles to the nave. (The arms of the cross.)
area in Christian churches containing the high altar and reserved for the use of the clergy. Includes the choir when present. Use "choirs" for the spaces in Christian churches, generally between the altar area and the nave, reserved for choristers.
Upper zones of walls rising above adjacent roofs and pierced by windows so as to admit light to a high central room or space flanked by lower rooms or spaces.
The area between columns, piers, or buttresses
A structure built against a wall to strengthen it.
historical period referring to the 1500s
Window placed at the top of the wall or in the highest story of the nave or choir of a church.
Use chiefly for enclosed Medieval gardens, generally found in monasteries, often formally arranged with planters and boxed sections.
Recessed panels, usually square or octagonal, set into ceilings, vaults, or soffits.
Masonry constructions whose arch-like form is created by cantilevering successive courses inward beyond the preceding until they meet at the span's midpoint; thus the courses are set horizontally, not radially; not true arches.
A secondary axis orthogonal to the principle axis of a building.
The area of a cross-shaped church, where the nave and transept cross.
Floor plan in the form or shape of a cross
A neutral object or system (line, plane or volume) which, by virtue of its regularity and continuity, makes visible relationships among formally and spatially disparate parts.
Appropriateness. In architectural theory, having to do with the selection of the correct building type, ornamental program and material for a building, according to the status of the owner and program.
an argument which opposes contrasting propositions (thesis and antithesis) to yield a third proposition, "synthesis". A dialectical, spiraling model of historical progress is put forward by GFW Hegel.
design by means of picking and choosing elements from unrelated historical styles.
an 18th c. philosophical movement characterized by Rationalism, democratic values and the betterment of society and human beings. See "philosophes." "Man is born free, but is everywhere enchained." (Rousseau).
A graphic device which uses contrasting tones of black and white to make evident the relationship between occupied and empty space.
a small garden structure, typical of Romantic gardens, meant more to be looked at and create associations,than to be inhabited.
took place in the late 18th, and 19th c., Gothic was usually thought to evoke ideas about the sublime through its irregular massing and vague, historical connections to less rational times; hence "Gothic Novel" (e.g. Frankenstein- a horror story with overwrought romantic intrigue.)
associated with gothic revival. the structural clarity and economy of Gothic led to ideas about structural rationalism as a determinant for architectural form;
associated with gothic revival. classicism was pagan; Gothic was Christian; Classicism was Mediterranean, Gothic was Northern, specifically English.
a cruciform plan in which all arms of the cross are of equal length.
revival of the Greek (classical) style which took place in the late 18th, and 19th centuries. "Greek" revival was usually thought to evoke ideas about the beautiful, through its even, regular massing and clear historical connections to the age of democracy, art and the philosophers.
a cave like element in a garden, often associated with water, heavy rustication , and deformation of canonical form hence, "grotesque"
a ditch, or "sunken fence", which could restrict the movement of animals without creating a visible barrier in the landscape. Typical in English Romantic gardens, especially those by Capability Brown.
a structure of relationships which organizes by relative importance members of a group or items in a system
a grand urban residence in France
a branch of philosophy, popular in the Renaissance, which placed special value on rational understanding, the Neo-Platonic connection between earthly and divine beauty, man as the image of God and therefore sacred, and the literature, philosophy and art of antiquity.
subject matter in works of art, including characters, animals, plants, themes, stories, events, places, objects, and their symbolism
the space between things. See "tartan grid".
The vast, continental surveying project, initiated by Jefferson, which measured, divided up, and ultimately distributed land
The tendency of vaulted structures, especially rounded vaulted, to exert force sideways, perpendicular to the height of the space.
a cross in which the transept is shorter than the nave
A covered porch, often related to a garden.
An artistic style of the late 16th century characterized by distortion of elements such as scale, perspective, realistic proportions, posture, and classical balance. This includes departures from normal appearance via distortion, eccentricity, exaggeration, stylization, etc. Architectural mannerism is thought of as a playful misuse of the classical vocabulary of forms, as in the famous slipping keystones in the arches of Giuliano Romano's Palazzo del Tè.
the relationship between various masses or volumes of a building or structure.
the state or quality of being material, or physical matter; In architecture, Materiality means the poetic and deliberate use of building materials to bring attention to their natural properties, texture, and scale, so that material becomes a bearer of meaning, rather than a simple construction device.
Anything relegated as a world in miniature, reflective of a larger order
The size of some part of a building, taken as a unit of measurement for the whole.
the study of forms
an eighteenth century style of art and architecture which looked to antiquity, but following moderne precepts, makes use of a rationalized system and more pared down, clarified understanding of form. The look tends to be thinner and more disjointed than real classical architecture (i.e. architecture of antiquity, or of the Renaissance or Baroque).
Niche / Exedra
curved recesses in walls, vaulted with a half dome. Niches are small, Exedrae are large.
tall, slender, four-sided, usually monolithic stone shafts which taper upward and end in a pyramidal tip.
round or oval openings, such as windows in a wall or openings in the crown of a dome.
The codified, canonical presentation of systems of trabeation found in classical architecture. In Grecce Doric, Ionic and Corinthian; In Rome, Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite (listed from the stoutest and simplest to the slenderest and most complex.)
an architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice
in the frieze of the entablature of the Doric order, the vertical blocks, which are divided by channels into three sections. Originally, the triglyphs were probably the ends of wooden ceiling beams
Spiral scroll at each corner of an Ionic or Corinthian capital.
In classical architecture, the top of an Order, horizontally divided into cornice, frieze, and architrave, supported by a colonnade
The lintel or flat horizontal member which spans the space between the columns; in classical architecture, the lowest member of an entablature.
Slight convex curve applied to columns in Classical architecture to counter the illusion that would otherwise occur of the columns being slightly concave.
a series of shallow concave grooves, vertical on the shaft of a column.
the spacing between columns
a technique for representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions by using parallel projecting lines that are perpendicular to the plane of projection or picture surface. Principal surfaces of objects are parallel to the picture plane. It does not include foreshortening, shifts in scale and proportion, or other distortions that would be caused by employing linear perspective.
A section that is cut along the long axis of a structure.
At a right angle to the Longitudinal Section
Grand urban dwelling in Italy, organized around a courtyard.
a method of surveillance, promoted by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) , often used to organize prisons, insane asylums, and other institutions. The plan of a panopticon is typically centralized and radial, so that a guard in a central watch tower can observe the inmates without being observed, so that surveillance becomes internalized.
an ideal example or model; a.) regarding form or type; b.) regarding the general structure of relationships in a culture as to how knowledge is acquired and organized.
An enclosed garden, organized as a four-square grid, representing the four rivers flowing out of Eden. The Paradise garden often serves as a basic formal organization, which sustains transformations, especially in landscape design.
a point of departure for an architectural idea; usually a formal diagram which may result from transformations of an ideal paradigm based on a more elaborate understanding of site, program or meaning of the building
A garden which is meant to be viewed from an elevated position and is comprised of crisply clipped shrubbery, which form patterns. Parterre, literally means "on the ground"
the ideal that virtue and simplicity resided in a simple, golden age of shepherds and shepherdesses- Arcadia. The Pastoral Ideal is one impulse underlying the design of Romantic gardens.
the system whereby works are commissioned and paid for, which usually has influence on the character and aspirations of a building.
a trellised, colonnaded walkway, forming an architectural edge in a garden setting.
A mathematical system for projecting three dimensional space onto a two-dimensional surface.
(this is much more than you need, but I am on a roll) French Enlightenment philosophers who were especially productive during the mid 1700s. Proponents and major works include: Voltaire, Candide, (1759), A Treatise on Tolerance, (1762), Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws (1748), Rousseau's Social Contract, Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences (1750), and, finally, the great capstone of the French philosophes movement, the first edition of Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie in 1751.
Central ideas of the Philosophe Movement / Enlightenment
Progress. Which is a) developing a knowledge of the natural world and the ability to manipulate the world through technology; b) overcoming ignorance bred of superstitions and religions; c) overcoming human cruelty and violence through social improvements and government structures.
Human history is largely a history of the improvement of humanity in three respects a) developing a knowledge of the natural world and the ability to manipulate the world through technology; b) overcoming ignorance bred of superstitions and religions; c) overcoming human cruelty and violence through social improvements and government structures.
Deism is a term coined in the philosophe movement and applies to two related ideas. a) religion should be reasonable and should result in the highest moral behavior of its adherents; b) the knowledge of the natural world and the human world has nothing to do whatsoever with religion and should be approached completely free from religious ideas or convictions.
The greatest human crimes, as far as the philosophes were concerned, have been perpetrated in the name of religion and the name of God. A fair, just, and productive society absolutely depends on religious tolerance. This means not merely tolerance of varying Christian sects, but tolerance of non-Christian religions as well (for some philosophes ).
looking like a landscape picture, preferably one by Claude Lorrain. Perspective. Used to describe landscapes, the ______ is characterized by gentle, curvilinear forms and a highly contrived presentation of "natural" hillocks, reflecting lakes and streams.
the two-dimensional illusion and construction of three-dimesnional space
Ideal, mathematically definable, geometric form, e.g. cubes, spheres, tetrahedrons, icosahedrons, dodecahedrons, (whereby all surfaces of a 3-dimensional object are identical. In common parlance, other, somewhat less ideal volumcalled "Platonic," such as yllinders, rectangular prisms, and cones.
Three dimensionality, sculptural value
the space between two surfaces of a wall, which can be carved and shaped to create figural spaces; in drawing, the dark infill which the draughtsman colors between two lines to represent a solid which has been cut through
literally, involving many colors. In Ruskin's terms, taking advantage of the natural colors of different materials.
The first dwelling, an architecture free from the burdens of history and style, which authenticly and naturally expressed the original way of building, thereby thought to be truer than an architecture practice which relied on histrical styles.
The mathematical ordering of rations of length: width: height so that dimension of parts adhere to and reiterate the order of the whole. Arithmentic, Geomentric and Harmonic proportion are discussed in Renaissance architectural theory.
the private realm, used in urbanism to discuss the dissolution of the architectural expression of the collective, in favor of separate, individualized expressions of many diverse interests. Democratic, but it ends to erode the formal cohesion of a city
a style of architecture and art that arose in France during the Regency Period and proliferated in Germany and Austria. The style is characterized by a profusion of asymmetrical, curvilinear ornament, the suppression of tectonic values, an ambiguous definition of boundary, and a playful use of light and mirrors.
a late 18th c., but especially 19th c. way of thinking that was characterized by LOVE OF NATURE; an acute SELF CONSCIOUSNESS about one's position in history, an expression of its anxiety through nostalgic revivals and eclectic RECOMPOSITION OF HISTORICALLY BASED PARTS, which aimed at CONNECTING TO THE AUTHENTICITY of an earlier era; EVOKING A SPECIFIC FEELING or mood, an ascendancy of SENTIMENT OVER REASON
the recognition that both Classical/ Neoclassical revivals and Romanticism are motivated by the same Romantic anxieties- see above.
heavy, roughly worked stone which conveys a sense of stone that has been freshly quarried, or which, indeed is returning to its natural, un-geometric, and un-finished state
like a stage set
a structural system based on ribs, pointed arches, flying buttresses, and column bundles, so that loads are directed to point supports, instead of continuous surfaces. Skeletal systems make possible extensive dematerialization of the wall, and thereby afford large surfaces for stained glass windows.
overwhelming, awe-inspiring; frightening, often associated with nature. The "Sublime", opposed to "beauty", is provoked by "delight" (the sensation that you are about to die, but then you don't). In formal terms, the sublime is characterized by strong, blinding light, enormous scale, irregular outlines, obscurity, violence, etc. See Edmund Burke's Inquiry into our Ideas ...On the Sublime and the Beautiful for details
Deriving from Abbe Laugier's primitive hut and Viollet-le-Duc, a belief that the best architecture derived from the honest expression of structure and construction, rather than the application of traditional ornament or the use of traditional types.
the resolution of the opposition of thesis and antithesis, which joins together aspects of both; the resolution of a Hegelian dialectic
see illustration at the beginning of this section. A grid comprised of bands in varying sizes, and identified by Wittkower, as the underlying structure of all of Palladio's villas. In an architectural application of the "tartan grid" wide bands usually contain major spaces, while narrow bands (a.k.a. "interstitial spaces") usually contain service spaces, or are flexible, able to join with a wider band, or to remain distinct.
the ability to judge and appreciate beauty; taste may be thought of as innate, or taste may be thought of as the product of study and exposure to excellent models.
Having to do with the development of and the display of a structural and constructional system.
any proposition. The first term in a Hegelian dialectic.
Formal, theoretical, systematic written expositions of the principles of a subject, generally longer and more detailed than essays.
Monumental structures containing at least one arched passageway and erected to honor an important person or to commemorate a significant event, particularly a victory in war. The basic form consisted of two piers connected by an arch, over which was placed a superstructure that served as a base for statues and bore commemorative inscriptions. Triumphal arches generally spanned a roadway used for triumphal processions
In architecture, used to indicate a building configuration received from history and already laden with meanings understandable to its culture
the study of types
the study of cities. In architecture, attention to the way in which buildings participate in and help contruxt the fabric of the city.
curved, Arched structures, usually of masonry and forming a ceiling or roof.
A grand country dwelling in Italy,. Wittkower identifies the basic parti of the Palladian villa as a tartan nine-suare grid.
used in landscape design to designate a significant view
Spirit of the Age