Photosynthesis: Light Reactions and The Calvin Cycle

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Exam #2

Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

water and NADPH

If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 synthesized with heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the 18O label. That one is...

O2

Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

ATP and NADPH

Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

stroma of the chloroplasts

When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following

splitting the water molcules

Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?

photophosphorylation

True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.

false

According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?

proton gradient

Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?

protons

True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.

false

Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?

ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution

Which process produces oxygen?

photosynthesis

Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?

light-dependent reactions

What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?

the light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars

True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.

true

Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?

NADPH

What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?

they convert CO2 into sugar

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?

the light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by light-independent reactions

Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?

regeneration of RuBP

The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because

this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm

Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?

the electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water

Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?

receiving electrons from plastocyanin

What are the products of linear photophosphorylation?

ATP and NADPH

As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?

cyclic electron flow

Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?

the synthesis of ATP

What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?

establishment of a proton gradient

In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?

thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial space

In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from

the stroma to the thylakoid space

Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?

thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

Synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs during

both photosynthesis and respiration

Reduction of oxygen which forms water occurs during

respiration

Reduction of NADP+ occurs during

photosynthesis

Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during

both photosynthesis and respiration

Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants?

they dissipate excessive light energy

Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?

the light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions

Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?

stroma of the chloroplast

What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

In the carbon fixation phase of the Calvin cycle, Rubisco attaches a molecule of carbon dioxide to a molecule containing five carbons. The resulting six-carbon compound is then split into two three-carbon molecules. After the reduction phase (including the exit of a single glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecule), what needs to happen next to complete a turn of the Calvin cycle?

regeneration of the five-carbon-containing molecule

The pH of the inner thylakoid space has been measured, as have the pH of the stroma and of the cytosol of a particular plant cell. Which, if any, relationship would you expect to find?

the pH within the thylakoid is less of that within the stroma

The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with

ATP and NADPH

Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

H2O > NADPH > calvin cycle

In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to

oxidative phosphorylation is cellular respiration

Which process is most directly driven by light energy?

removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic

Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?

release of oxygen

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