psych exam 2

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44 terms · learning, operant and classical conditioning

Conditioning is the process of _____.

learning associations

Jane had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room started to make her nauseous. The waiting room became the _____.

conditioned stimulus

When Juan was a child he was attacked by a swarm of hornets in his back yard. Now every time he hears the sound of hornets he immediately becomes frightened. This is an example of _____.

classical conditioning

While 5-year-old Martha was looking at one of the balloons her mother set out for her birthday, Martha's brother Timmy took a pin and popped the balloon causing Martha to flinch and blink quickly. Later during the party Martha's mother approached her with a balloon and she blinked and flinched. This is an example of _____ conditioning?

classical

Before the bell was ever presented, Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. The _____ in this situation is salivation.

unconditioned response

Marcia is in therapy to obtain help in her efforts stop smoking. Her therapist made a series of suggestions to help reduce her cravings. Which of the following suggestions are based on Pavlov's research on classical conditioning?

Avoid places where she usually smoked in order to reduce her craving.

Both Watson and Pavlov believed that psychology should study only objective and _____ psychological phenomena.

observable

_____ involves any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

positive reinforcement

Robert Rescorla's classical conditioning research demonstrated the importance of _____ in classical conditioning

Cognition

Operant behavior operates on the environment, whereas, _____ behavior occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.

respondent

In a series of experiments conducted by Eliot & Niesta (2008) in which subjects were shown photographs of women that controlled for other factors (such as the brightness of the image), men (but not women) found women more attractive and sexually desirable when framed in the color _____.

red

In classical conditioning acquisition of a new behavior is associating _____ while in operant conditioning acquisition of a new behavior is associating response with a consequence (reinforcer or punishe

events

One main difference between punishment and reinforcement is that the goal of reinforcement is to _____ a behavior, while the goal of punishment is to decrease a behavior.

increase

The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors that can interfere with learning operant behaviors is called _____

instinctual drift

B.F. Skinner believed that _____ influences, not thoughts and feelings, shape animal and human behavior.

external

Matt regularly buckles his seatbelt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:

negative reinforcement.

_____ occurs when an animal's inborn or instinctive behavior patterns could interfere with the operant conditioning of new behaviors.

instinctive drift

What stimulus did B. F. Skinner believed should was the best way to shape desirable behavior?

positive reinforcement

The idea that an animal's natural behavior patterns did not matter and had little or no effect on the effectiveness of operant conditioning principles was challenged by research conducted by Keller and Marian _____.

Breland

While classical conditioning involves the conditioning of _____ behavior; operant conditioning involves the conditioning of voluntary behavior.

involuntary

In _____ conditioning an organism learns associations between events it doesn't control.

classical

_____ learning is learning that is not demonstrated until one is motivated to perform the behavior.

latent

B.F. Skinner believed that external influences not _____ shape animal and human behavior.

thoughts

A _____ is a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.

cognitive map

Coyotes who have been fed sheep carcasses that have been laced with a nausea-inducing poison are less likely to prey on sheep in the wild. This phenomenon is best explained by which classical conditioning phenomenon?

taste aversion

Today's learning theorists recognize that our learning results not only from environmental but from an interaction between _____ influences.

Biopsychosocial

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment is called a(n) _____.

cognitive map

_____ in his 1972 classical conditioning study showed that an animal can learn the predictability of an event.

Robert Rescorla

The cognitive processes in _____ involve the organism developing an expectation that a response will be reinforced or punished with or without reinforcement.

operant conditioning

Continuously checking to see if the cookies are ready is an example of the _____ schedule of reinforcement.

fixed-interval

If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a _____ reinforcer.

conditioned

In Bandura's experiment, compared to children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model's aggressive outburst were _____ to lash out at the doll.

much more likely

In Bandura's experiment, compared to children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model's aggressive outburst were _____ likely to lash out at the doll.

more

4-year-old Mia watched her mother sing while she was brushing her hair. The next day Mia's mother saw Mia singing while brushing her dog. Mia was _____ her mother's behavior that she acquired through observational learning.

modeling

Studies show that a significant number of children who are victims of child abuse become child abusers themselves. This unfortunate incidence is learned through _____ and the area of the brain that models this behavior is (are) _____.

observational learning; mirror neurons

A guest will be spending time in your classroom. To make sure your students imitate this person's prosocial behaviors, you should pick a guest who:

the children think is similar to them.

As we observe another's actions, our brain generates an inner simulation, enabling us to perceive and understand the other's experience within ourselves. Mirror neurons help give rise to children's empathy and to their ability to infer another's mental state, an ability known as:

theory of mind.

Models who commit violent acts but go unpunished would lead to the _____ of aggressive behavior through observational learning.

acquiring (or imitating)

Which of the following neurons fire both when action is performed and when action is simply observed.

mirror neurons

Classical conditioning focuses on _____ behavior, whereas operant conditioning focuses on _____ behavior.

respondent; operant

Ever since she foolishly drank too much tequila at a rock concert and vomited all over her best friend, Erin becomes nauseous at the smell or taste of tequila. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is _____ and the conditioned response is the nausea.

smelll

Classical and operant conditionings are similar in many ways, but they are not the same in terms of _____ responses to stimuli.

involuntary

Correlational evidence suggests that there is a link between viewing television violence and exhibiting violent behavior. However, it is possible that the television viewing is not causing the violence. Which of the following alternative hypotheses might explain the correlations?

Neglectful parenting could be the cause of increased aggression and increased television watching.

5-year-old Debbie watched her mother sing while she was brushing her hair. The next day Debbie's mother saw Debbie singing while brushing her dog. Debbie was modeling her mother's behavior that she acquired through _____.

observational learning

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