Metabolism is the collection of all _____________ reations which take place within an organism.
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
Microorganisms must aquire their nutrients from:
external environments (serves as raw material for metabolic reactions).
Metabolic reations require energy acquired from what 2 sources?
light OR catabolism
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
How many precursor metabolites are formed through a minimum of 3 metabolic pathways?
what facilitates catabolic reations to form precursor metabolites?
enzymes facilitate catabolic reations to form elementary building blocks called:
catabolic reactions store _______ in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphospates.
Precursor metabolites and enzymes construct larger building blocks in what type of reactions?
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules
anabolic reations, enzymes and energy link to form:
anabolic reactions, enzymes and energy link to form macromolecules in what type of reactions?
cells grow by ASSEMBLING macromolecules into cellular structures such as:
ribosomes, membranes and cell walls.
cells grow by ____________ macromolecules into cellular structures.
once a cell has doubled its size it will:
what ESSENTIAL nutrients must be obtained from external environments?
nitrogen, sulfer, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen (HONCS)
Cells use what mechanisms to import nutrients?
What types of transport systems do cells use?
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and group translocation.
In what type of transport do nutrients move from one area of high to low concentration?
In what type of transport requires a transmembrane transport protein to mediate the transfer of nutrients from an area of high to low concentration?
what type of transport requires transmembrane transport protein which use ATP (energy) to transfer nutrients into the cell from an area of low to high concentration?
what type of transport system diffuses from low to high areas of concentration?
what type of transport requires that nutrients enter the cell by facilitated diffusion, followed by chemical modiciation and require energy?
ATP is generated through:
A process which requires inorganic phosphate is added to a molecule of ADP
phosphorylation requires inorganic phosphate added to a molecule of:
phosplhorylation requires a molecule of ADP added to:
What are the three ways of phosphorylation?
substrate level; oxidative; and photophosphorylation
phosphorylation that involves the transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound:
phosphorylation that occurs when energy from redox reactions of respiration used to attach inorganic phosphate to ADP
phosphorylation that occurs when light energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate
what interconversion of ADP and ATP extists within a cell?
cyclical or constant
Catabolic pathways are a series of reactions which break down larger molecules into smaller molecules and release:
energy (ATP and heat)
the most common carbon and energy source for all living things
the most common carbohydrate:
glucose is catabolized via what 2 processes?
cellular respiration or fermentation
first step in catabolism of glucose:
glycolysis (both cellular respiration or fermentation)
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
glycolysis involves splitting a _____ carbon glucose molecule into 2 three carbon molecules of _______________
6; pyruvic acid
glycolysis yeilds two molecules of NADH (potential energy) and six precursor __________ including glucose-6-phosphate and pyruvic acid.
in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are invested and 4 molecules of ATP are produced by:
in glycolysis ____ molecules of ATP are invested and ______ molecules of ATP are produced.
in glycolysis how many ATP molecules are gained per molecule of glucose?
in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are gained per molecule of:
cellular respiration occurs in what three stages?
1. synthesis of acetyl-CoA;
2. the Kreb's cycle;
3. electron transport chain
during synthesis of acetyl-CoA, enzymes remove a carbon from each molecule of pyruvic acid as _________
in synthese of Acetyl-CoA, one molecule of ______ is generated per molecule of _______
NADH; pyruvic acid
During synthesis of acetyl-CoA join the remaining acetate molecule to _________ producing a molecule of _________
coenzyme A; acetyl-CoA
The Kreb's cycle occurs in the ______ of ________ cells and the matrix of _________ in ________ cells.
cytoplasm of prokaryotes; mitochondria of eukaryotes
Each turn of the Krebs cycle yeilds:
4 precursor metabolites; 1 molecule ATP; 3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH2; and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide.
The electron transport chain is located where?
In the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes
In the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes
the electron transport chain consists of a sweries of membrane bound carrier molecules which pass ________ from one to another and ultimately to a final electron _______
During the electron transport chain, _______ use oxygen and _______ use sulfate, nitrate, or carbon
anaerobes use what for cellular respiration?
sulfate, nitrate or carbonate
where do electrons enter the electron transport chain?
what carries electrons in the electron transport chain?
NADH and FADH2
the energy of the electrons is used to pump protons across the membrane establishing:
a proton concentration gradient
a proton concentration gradient can be used to gereate ATP through a process called:
proton concentration gradient used to generate ATP
protons flow down the electrochemical gradient through cannels called:
ATP synthesis phosphorylate molecules of ____ into ____
ADP to ATP
The electron transport chain yeilds about ______ molecules of ATP
The total production of ATP from a molecule of of glucose oxidized through cellular respiration in prokaryotes is: _______ in eukaryotes is______.
prokaryotes = 38 molecules of ATP
eukaryotes = 36 molecules of ATP
if the final electron acceptor is absent, sugar molecules can be partially oxidized through:
fermintation is a form of ________ respiration
micororganisms produce a variety of fermentation products as:
three examples of fermentation waste:
fermentation carried out by lactic acid bacteia
lactic acid fermentation
lactic acid fermentation begins with:
lactic acid fermentation begins with glycolysis and is followed by:
reduction of pyruvic acid into lactic acid
what kind of fermentation is characteristic of yeast?
alcohol fermentation begins with?
alcohol fermentation begins with glycolysis, followed by:
conversion of pyruvic acid into ETHONOL and CARBON DIOXIDE using the NADH generated during glycolysis
alcohol fermentation converts pyruvic acid into:
ethonol and carbon dioxide
what type of fermentation is characteristic of E. coli?
mixed acid fermentation
mixed acid fermentaion begins with:
in mixed acid fermentation, pyruvic acid is converted to at least _____ different end products including:
1. lactic acid
2. acetic acid
3. formic acid
4. succinic acid
5. hydrogen gas
6. carbon dioxide
what pathway is an alternate path between two points in glycolysis?
pentose phosphate is utilized to generate:
2 precursor metabolites
the 2 precursor metabolites in pentose phosphate cannot be generaged from:
glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle
the pentose phospate pathway in metabolism begins with:
the pentose phospate pathway ends with:
the pentose phosphate pathway yields:
2 precursor metabolites
2 molecules of NADPH
1 molecule of ATP
what pathways are a series of synthesis reations which utilize the products generated by catabolic reactions?
anabolic pathways use products generated by catabolic reactions, precursor metabolites and energy to build:
monomers and coenzymes
essential small molecules which act together with enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions:
ready made molecules which act as coenzymes or precursors:
what are the 2 types of anabolic pathways?
branched and unbranched
what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolites used to generate several different products?
what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolite utilized to generate a single product?
carbohydrates can be synthesized from carbon dioxide through:
photosynthesis synthsizes carbohydrates from:
carbon dioxide photosynthesizes:
carbohydrates and non-carb precursors are photosynthesized through a collection of pathways called:
lipids are synthsized through a variety of routes, most of which are the reverse of their:
amino acids are synthesized through:
animation or transanimation
nucleotides are produced from precursor metabilites of glycolysis and:
what is produced from precursor metabolites of glycolysis and kreb's cycle?
polymerization reactions occur when _________ and other molecular biliding blocks generated through anabolic reactions are joined together to form ___________
polymerization reactions include:
polymerization of deoxyribonuleotides:
polymerization of ribonucleotides
polymerization of amino acids
the assembly of cellular structures from macromolecules generated through polymerization can occur in what 2 ways?
enzyme catalized assembly
self assembly proceeds:
enzyme catalized assembly proceeds:
penicillin binding proteins catalyze reactions which connect units of:
electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle
electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP