Microbiology Chapter 5

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MGCCC Instructor: Ryan

Metabolism is the collection of all _____________ reations which take place within an organism.

biochemical

Metabolic Process:

the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life

Microorganisms must aquire their nutrients from:

external environments (serves as raw material for metabolic reactions).

Metabolic reations require energy acquired from what 2 sources?

light OR catabolism

catabolism

breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy

How many precursor metabolites are formed through a minimum of 3 metabolic pathways?

12

what facilitates catabolic reations to form precursor metabolites?

enzymes

enzymes facilitate catabolic reations to form elementary building blocks called:

precursor metabolites

catabolic reactions store _______ in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphospates.

energy

Precursor metabolites and enzymes construct larger building blocks in what type of reactions?

anabolic

anabolic

A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules

anabolic reations, enzymes and energy link to form:

macromolecules

anabolic reactions, enzymes and energy link to form macromolecules in what type of reactions?

polymerization

cells grow by ASSEMBLING macromolecules into cellular structures such as:

ribosomes, membranes and cell walls.

cells grow by ____________ macromolecules into cellular structures.

assembling

once a cell has doubled its size it will:

reproduce

what ESSENTIAL nutrients must be obtained from external environments?

nitrogen, sulfer, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen (HONCS)

Cells use what mechanisms to import nutrients?

transport

What types of transport systems do cells use?

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and group translocation.

In what type of transport do nutrients move from one area of high to low concentration?

simple diffusion

In what type of transport requires a transmembrane transport protein to mediate the transfer of nutrients from an area of high to low concentration?

facilitated diffusion

what type of transport requires transmembrane transport protein which use ATP (energy) to transfer nutrients into the cell from an area of low to high concentration?

active transport

what type of transport system diffuses from low to high areas of concentration?

active transport

what type of transport requires that nutrients enter the cell by facilitated diffusion, followed by chemical modiciation and require energy?

group translocation

ATP is generated through:

phosphorylation

A process which requires inorganic phosphate is added to a molecule of ADP

phosphorylation

phosphorylation requires inorganic phosphate added to a molecule of:

ADP

phosplhorylation requires a molecule of ADP added to:

inorganic phosphate

What are the three ways of phosphorylation?

substrate level; oxidative; and photophosphorylation

phosphorylation that involves the transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound:

substrate level

phosphorylation that occurs when energy from redox reactions of respiration used to attach inorganic phosphate to ADP

oxidative

phosphorylation that occurs when light energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate

photophosphorylation

what interconversion of ADP and ATP extists within a cell?

cyclical or constant

Catabolic pathways are a series of reactions which break down larger molecules into smaller molecules and release:

energy (ATP and heat)

the most common carbon and energy source for all living things

carbohydrates

the most common carbohydrate:

glucose

glucose is catabolized via what 2 processes?

cellular respiration or fermentation

first step in catabolism of glucose:

glycolysis (both cellular respiration or fermentation)

glycolysis

first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid

glycolysis involves splitting a _____ carbon glucose molecule into 2 three carbon molecules of _______________

6; pyruvic acid

glycolysis yeilds two molecules of NADH (potential energy) and six precursor __________ including glucose-6-phosphate and pyruvic acid.

metabolites

in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are invested and 4 molecules of ATP are produced by:

sustrate-level phosphorylation

in glycolysis ____ molecules of ATP are invested and ______ molecules of ATP are produced.

2; 4

in glycolysis how many ATP molecules are gained per molecule of glucose?

2

in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are gained per molecule of:

glucose

cellular respiration occurs in what three stages?

1. synthesis of acetyl-CoA;
2. the Kreb's cycle;
3. electron transport chain

during synthesis of acetyl-CoA, enzymes remove a carbon from each molecule of pyruvic acid as _________

carbon dioxide

in synthese of Acetyl-CoA, one molecule of ______ is generated per molecule of _______

NADH; pyruvic acid

During synthesis of acetyl-CoA join the remaining acetate molecule to _________ producing a molecule of _________

coenzyme A; acetyl-CoA

The Kreb's cycle occurs in the ______ of ________ cells and the matrix of _________ in ________ cells.

cytoplasm of prokaryotes; mitochondria of eukaryotes

Each turn of the Krebs cycle yeilds:

4 precursor metabolites; 1 molecule ATP; 3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH2; and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide.

The electron transport chain is located where?

In the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes
In the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes

the electron transport chain consists of a sweries of membrane bound carrier molecules which pass ________ from one to another and ultimately to a final electron _______

electrons; acceptor

During the electron transport chain, _______ use oxygen and _______ use sulfate, nitrate, or carbon

aerobes; anaerobes

anaerobes use what for cellular respiration?

sulfate, nitrate or carbonate

where do electrons enter the electron transport chain?

different locations

what carries electrons in the electron transport chain?

NADH and FADH2

the energy of the electrons is used to pump protons across the membrane establishing:

a proton concentration gradient

a proton concentration gradient can be used to gereate ATP through a process called:

chemiosmosis

chemisomosis

proton concentration gradient used to generate ATP

protons flow down the electrochemical gradient through cannels called:

ATP synthesis

ATP synthesis phosphorylate molecules of ____ into ____

ADP to ATP

The electron transport chain yeilds about ______ molecules of ATP

34

The total production of ATP from a molecule of of glucose oxidized through cellular respiration in prokaryotes is: _______ in eukaryotes is______.

prokaryotes = 38 molecules of ATP
eukaryotes = 36 molecules of ATP

if the final electron acceptor is absent, sugar molecules can be partially oxidized through:

fermentation

fermintation is a form of ________ respiration

anaeorbic

micororganisms produce a variety of fermentation products as:

waste

three examples of fermentation waste:

lactic acid
alcohol
mixed acid

fermentation carried out by lactic acid bacteia

lactic acid fermentation

lactic acid fermentation begins with:

glycolysis

lactic acid fermentation begins with glycolysis and is followed by:

reduction of pyruvic acid into lactic acid

what kind of fermentation is characteristic of yeast?

alcohol

alcohol fermentation begins with?

glycolysis

alcohol fermentation begins with glycolysis, followed by:

conversion of pyruvic acid into ETHONOL and CARBON DIOXIDE using the NADH generated during glycolysis

alcohol fermentation converts pyruvic acid into:

ethonol and carbon dioxide

what type of fermentation is characteristic of E. coli?

mixed acid fermentation

mixed acid fermentaion begins with:

glycolysis

in mixed acid fermentation, pyruvic acid is converted to at least _____ different end products including:

1. lactic acid
2. acetic acid
3. formic acid
4. succinic acid
5. hydrogen gas
6. carbon dioxide
7. ethanol

what pathway is an alternate path between two points in glycolysis?

pentose phosphate

pentose phosphate is utilized to generate:

2 precursor metabolites

the 2 precursor metabolites in pentose phosphate cannot be generaged from:

glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle

the pentose phospate pathway in metabolism begins with:

glucose-6-phosphate

the pentose phospate pathway ends with:

phosphoglyceraldehyde

the pentose phosphate pathway yields:

2 precursor metabolites
2 molecules of NADPH
1 molecule of ATP

what pathways are a series of synthesis reations which utilize the products generated by catabolic reactions?

anabolic

anabolic pathways use products generated by catabolic reactions, precursor metabolites and energy to build:

monomers and coenzymes

essential small molecules which act together with enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions:

coenzymes

ready made molecules which act as coenzymes or precursors:

vitamins

what are the 2 types of anabolic pathways?

branched and unbranched

what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolites used to generate several different products?

branched

what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolite utilized to generate a single product?

unbranched

carbohydrates can be synthesized from carbon dioxide through:

photosynthesis

photosynthesis synthsizes carbohydrates from:

carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide photosynthesizes:

carbohydrates

carbohydrates and non-carb precursors are photosynthesized through a collection of pathways called:

gluconeogenesis

lipids are synthsized through a variety of routes, most of which are the reverse of their:

catabolism

amino acids are synthesized through:

animation or transanimation

nucleotides are produced from precursor metabilites of glycolysis and:

krebs cycle

what is produced from precursor metabolites of glycolysis and kreb's cycle?

necleotides

polymerization reactions occur when _________ and other molecular biliding blocks generated through anabolic reactions are joined together to form ___________

monomers
macromolecules

polymerization reactions include:

DNA replication
transcription
translation

polymerization of deoxyribonuleotides:

DNA replication

polymerization of ribonucleotides

transcription

polymerization of amino acids

translation

the assembly of cellular structures from macromolecules generated through polymerization can occur in what 2 ways?

self assembly
enzyme catalized assembly

self assembly proceeds:

spontaneously

enzyme catalized assembly proceeds:

requires enzymes

penicillin binding proteins catalyze reactions which connect units of:

peptidoglycan

FADh2

electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle

NADH

electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP

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