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Commandments

God's laws.

Aaron

(Old Testament) elder brother of Moses and first high priest of the Israelites
ex:created the golden calf

Abraham

the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac
EX. according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham's family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son; Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.

Ark

a boat built by Noah to save his family and animals from the Flood

Cosmogony

A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.

Bar Mitzvah

(Judaism) an initiation ceremony marking the 13th birthday of a Jewish boy and signifying the beginning of religious responsibility

Hebrew Bible

A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. (99)

Bris

the Jewish rite of circumcision performed on a male child on the eighth day of his life

Hanukkah

(Judaism) an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165 BC

Days of Awe

3 holidays: Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot/ Shemini Atzeret.. Taken together they emphasize the need for repentance and self-examination in human life.

Esau

(Old Testament) the oldest son of Isaac who would have inherited the Covenant that God made with Abraham and that Abraham passed on to Isaac
EX. he traded his birthright to his twin brother Jacob for a mess of pottage,

Exodus

the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses
EX. God gave them the Ten Commandments and the rest of Mosaic law on Mount Sinai during the Exodus

Genesis

the first book of the Old Testament: tells of creation
EX. Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers

Hebrew

the ancient Canaanitic language of the Hebrews that has been revived as the official language of Israel

Isaac

(Old Testament) the second patriarch
EX. son of Abraham and Sarah who was offered by Abraham as a sacrifice to God; father of Jacob and Esau

Ishmael

(Old Testament) the son of Abraham who was cast out after the birth of Isaac
EX. considered the forebear of 12 Arabian tribes

Israel

an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea

Jacob

(Old Testament) son of Isaac
EX. brother of Esau; father of the twelve patriarchs of Israel; Jacob wrestled with God and forced God to bless him, so God gave Jacob the new name of Israel (meaning 'one who has been strong against God')

Jerusalem

capital and largest city of the modern state of Israel
EX. a holy city for Jews and Christians and Muslims; was the capital of an ancient kingdom

Magen David

The shield of David, or more commonly known as the Star of David. It is two equalateral triangles, 6 pointed star overlapping one anotherr. It is the biggest sign of Judaism today.

Kosher

food that fulfills the requirements of Jewish dietary law

Matzah

is the unleavened bread that is made before Passover because it represents how the Jews were unable to wait for their bread to rise the night before their exodus.

Menorah

Candelabrum. The seven-branched version was one of the temple furnishings and today symbolizes Israel on its national seal; the nine-branched version is specifically used to commemorate Hanukkah, eight of the cnadles symbolizing the eight days of the festival and the ninth traditionally being used to light the others.

Mezuzah

religious texts from Deuteronomy inscribed on parchment and rolled up in a case that is attached to the doorframe of many Jewish households in accordance with Jewish law

Mikva

a special deep bath structure symbolizing altered state, 7 days after woman's period, Orthodox

Messiah

the awaited king of the Jews
EX. the promised and expected deliverer of the Jewish people

Minyan

the quorum required by Jewish law to be present for public worship (at least ten males over thirteen years of age)

Mitzvah

In Judaism, a divine commandment or sacred deed in fulfillment of a commandment (a good deed performed out of religious duty)

Moses

(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
EX. Moses received the Ten Commandments from God on Mount Sinai

Noah

the Hebrew patriarch who saved himself and his family and the animals by building an ark in which they survived 40 days and 40 nights of rain

Pesach

(Judaism) a Jewish passover festival (traditionally 8 days) celebrating the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt

Shavuot

(Judaism) Jewish holy day celebrated on the sixth of Sivan to celebrate Moses receiving the Ten Commandments

Tefillin

(Judaism) either of two small leather cases containing texts from the Hebrew Scriptures (known collectively as tefillin)
EX. traditionally worn (on the forehead and the left arm) by Jewish men during morning prayer

Prophets

people who are said to receive messages from god to be taught to others

Purim

(Judaism) a Jewish holy day commemorating their deliverance from massacre by Haman

Spring festival celebrating the deliverance of the Jews in the days of Queen Esther

Rabbi

spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation
EX. qualified to expound and apply Jewish law

Rosh Hashanah

(Judaism) a solemn Jewish feast day celebrated on the 1st or 1st and 2nd of Tishri
Judaism New Year
EX. noted for the blowing of the shofar

Yom Kippur

(Judaism) a solemn Jewish fast day and reflecting on ones sins
EX. 10th of Tishri; its observance is one of the requirements of the Mosaic Law

Shabbat

Jewish Sabbath which runs from friday evening to saturday evening

Jewish word for Sabbath meaning the day of rest and worship

Sarah

(Old Testament) the wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac

Seder

traditional Jewish meal eaten at Passover

Shema

a liturgical prayer (considered to be the essence of Jewish religion) that is recited at least twice daily by adult Jewish males to declare their faith

Shofar

a ram's-horn trumpet blown by the ancient Hebrews in battle and during religious observances and used in modern Judaism esp. during Rosh Hashanah and at the end of Yom Kippur

Simchat Torah

(Judaism) a Jewish holy day celebrated on the 22nd or 23rd of Tishri to celebrate the completion of the annual cycle of readings of the Torah

Sukkot

week of celebration, people live in booths and offering sacrifices; 7th Month/ 15th - 21st of Tishri; Purpose-Remembers the wondering in the wilderness from Egypt to Cannan.

Synagogue

(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation

Tallit

Prayer shawl given on bar/bat mitzvahs, about humbleness in the eyes of god; worn by adult males

Talmud

the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition (the Mishna and the Gemara) that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism

Temple

(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation

Tish B' Av

Rabbinic Holiday
Fast Day Commemorating Destruction of Temple

Torah

(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
EX. is used in a synagogue during services

Yod

tool used to read the torrah
-you cant touch the torrah with your hands

Yarmulke

a skullcap worn by religious Jews (especially at prayer) males

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