# chapter 3

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Review questions for David Kronke's "Database Processing: Fundamentals, Design and Implementation" (10th ed)

### true

All relations are tables, but not all tables are relations.

### false

A relation is a three-dimensional table.

### true

A characteristic of a relation is that the cells of the relation hold a single value.

### false

A characteristic of a relation is that the rows of a relation may hold identical values.

### false

The columns of a relation are sometimes called "tuples."

### false

A tuple is a group of one or more columns that uniquely identifies a row.

### true

Attribute Y is functionally dependent on attribute X if the value of attribute X determines the value of Y.

### false

The functional dependency noted as A  B, means that the value of A can be determined from the value of B.

### false

In the functional dependency shown as A  B, B is the determinant.

### true

Functional dependencies can involve groups of attributes.

### true

A determinant of a functional dependency may or may not be unique in a relation.

### true

A row can be uniquely identified by a key.

### true

A key can be composed of a group of attributes taken together.

### false

It is possible to have a relation that does not have a key.

### false

A relation can have only one candidate key.

### false

Surrogate keys usually slow performance.

### true

Surrogate keys are normally not shown on forms or reports.

### false

A constraint that requires an instance of an entity to exist in one relation before it can be referenced in another relation is called an insertion anomaly.

### true

A referential integrity constraint limits the values of a foreign key.

### false

If a table meets the minimum definition of a relation, it has an effective or appropriate structure.

### true

Undesirable consequences of changing the data in a relation are called "modification anomalies."

### true

A deletion anomaly exists when deleting data about one entity results in the loss of data about another entity.

### true

Relations are classified into "normal forms" based on the types of modification anomalies that they are vulnerable to.

### false

Any table that meets the definition of a relation is in 2NF.

### true

A relation is in Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) if every determinant is a candidate key.

### true

The essence of normalization is taking a relation that is not in BCNF and breaking it into multiple relations such that each one is in BCNF.

### true

Breaking a relation into two relations may create the need for a referential integrity constraint to be defined between the two relations.

### true

A multivalued dependency exists when a determinant is matched to a set of values.

### true

The multivalued dependency noted as A --> -->B, means that the value of A determines a set of values of B.

### true

A relation is in 4NF when multivalued dependencies are isolated in their own relation.

### relation

A(n) _______ is a table composed of columns and rows.

### tuple

In relational terms as defined by E.F. Codd, a row is called a(n) ________.

### attribute

In relational terms as defined by E.F. Codd, a column is called a(n) _________.

### functional dependency

A(n) __________ is a relationship between attributes such that if we know the value of one attribute, we can determine the value of the other attribute.

### functionally dependent

If by knowing the value of A, we can find the value of B, then we would say thatB is ________ on A.

### determinant

In functional dependencies, the attribute whose value is known or given is referred to as the ________ .

### composite determinant

Given the functional dependency (A, B) --> C, the attributes (A, B) are referred to as a ____________.

### A --> B, A --> C

Given the functional dependency A --> (B, C), then it is true that _______ and___________ .

### A -->C, B --> C

Given the functional dependency (A, B) --> C, then it is not true that _______ and ________ .

### B --> A

Given the functional dependency A --> B, it is not necessarily true that _________ .

### key

A(n) _______ is a combination of one or more columns that is used to identify particular rows in a relation.

### composite key

A(n) ___________ is a group of attributes that uniquely identifies a row.

### candidate key

A(n) _____________is one of a group of keys that may serve as the primary key in a relation.

### primary key

A(n) _______ is a candidate key that has been selected to uniquely identify rows in a relation.

### primary key

A(n) relation or table has only one __________ .

### surrogate key

A(n) ___________ is an artificial column that is added to a relation to be its primary key.

### foreign key

A(n) ___________ is one or more columns in one relation that also are the primary key in another table.

### referential integrity constraint

A(n) ___________________ is used to make sure the values of a foreign key match a valid value of a primary key.

### modification anomalies

For some relations, changing the data can have undesirable consequences called __________________.

### normal forms

Relations are categorized into ____________ where the categorization is based on the problems the relation has.

### relation

Any table that meets the definition of a(n) ___________is said to be in first normal form.

### INF

If a table is a relation then it is in __________ .

### Boyce-Codd

A defining requirement for _____________ normal form is that every determinant must be a candidate key.

### determinant

A relation is in BCNF if every _____________ is a candidate key.

### candidate key

A relation is in BCNF if every determinant is a(n) ____________ .

### constraint

Domain/key normal form requires that every __________ be a logical consequence of the definition of domains and keys.

### domain/key

A relation that is in __________ normal form is assured to be free from all anomalies.

### referential integrity

Every time we break up a relation during the normalization process, we may have to create ___________ constraints.

### multivalued dependencies

A relation is in 4NF if it is in BCNF and it has no ___________________.

### theme

When designing or normalizing relations, each relation should have only one ________ .

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