Mastering Biology Ch 6

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_____ is a chemical process that uses light energy from the sun to build organic molecules.

Photosynthesis

Which of the following is an autotroph?

magnolia tree

Because plants are involved in photosynthesis, they are called _____.

producers

The chemical ingredients needed for photosynthesis are _____ and _____.

carbon dioxide ... water

_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a waste in the overall process of cellular respiration.

Glucose ... carbon dioxide

The main function of cellular respiration is __________.

making ATP to power cell activities

Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.

oxygen

An important end product of cellular respiration is _____.

water

Where in a cell does glycolysis occur?

cytosol

In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?

the mitochondria

Organisms that are poisoned by oxygen and must live in very low oxygen regions are called _____.

anaerobes

Chemical reactions that require oxygen are called _____ while those that do not require oxygen are considered _____.

aerobic ... anaerobic

Which of the following is a group of organisms that thrive in an anaerobic environment?

microorganisms

Marathon runners have mostly slow-twitch muscle fibers, whereas sprinters have mostly fast-twitch fibers; their muscle fibers perform differently because __________.

they use different processes for making ATP

For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH enter the electron transport chain.

10

In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.

oxidative phosphorylation

The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.

oxygen

During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.

NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space

The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.

kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient

In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.

lactate and NAD+

In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.

pyruvate ... NADH

How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?

2

In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?

FADH2

In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose breakdown?

ATP

In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.

2

Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?

acetyl CoA

In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?

acetyl CoA

What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?

hydrolysis

Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy

Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

glycolysis

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

mitochondrion

Which statement describes glycolysis?

This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.

Cellular respiration requires fuel (glucose) and oxygen gas. The main process that produces these inputs is _____.

photosynthesis

Which part(s) of cellular respiration require(s) oxygen gas?

the Citric Acid cycle and the electron transport chain.

What is/are the most important output(s) of glycolysis?

two pyruvic acid and two NADH molecules

Unlike the Citric Acid cycle and electron transport, glycolysis occurs _____.

in the cytoplasm

Glycolysis is the multi-step breakdown of _____. Several different _____ play a role in this process.

glucose ... enzymes

Which part(s) of cellular respiration take(s) place in the mitochondria?

the Citric Acid cycle and the electron transport chain.

What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?

Oxygen accepts high-energy electrons after they are stripped from glucose.

Cellular respiration accomplishes two major processes: (1) it breaks glucose down into smaller molecules, and (2) it harvests the chemical energy released and stores it in ATP molecules. By the end of _____, the breakdown of glucose is complete; most ATP molecules are produced during _____.

the Citric Acid cycle ... electron transport

NADH and FADH 2 are important in cellular respiration because they deliver high-energy electrons to the electron transport system. Electron transport produces _____ ATP molecule(s) per NADH molecule and _____ ATP molecules(s) per FADH 2 molecule.

three ... two

In electron transport, high-energy electrons "fall" to oxygen through a series of reactions. The energy released is used to _____.

transport protons into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria, where they become concentrated. They then flow back out into the the inner compartment (matrix) of the mitochodria. On the way back, protons turn ATP synthase turbines and produce ATP.

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